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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helena M.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    The physiological impact of soccer on elite female players and the effects of active recovery training2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Female soccer is becoming more popular and professional in the world. There are, however, limited scientific data available on how elite female players respond to physical stress during soccer games. An effective recovery strategy following a game is important, because there are few recovery days between the games in international tournaments. The present thesis, which was designed to mirror a competitive situation, aimed to investigate changes in several physiological systems occurring in female elite players in response to two soccer games. It also aimed to investigate the effects of active recovery training on the recovery of several physiological systems. METHODS: Two elite female soccer teams played two 90-min games separated by 72 h active or passive recovery. The active recovery training (cycling at 60% HRpeak, resistance training at <50% 1RM) lasted one hour and was performed 22 and 46 h after the first game. Countermovement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint time and isokinetic knee strength were measured before, immediately, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after the first game, and immediately after the second game. The physical stress markers (CK, urea), oxidative stress markers (e.g., GSSG, lipid peroxidation), endogenous (e.g., UA, thiols) and dietary antioxidants (e.g., tocopherols, carotenoids) and a large battery of cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α) were analysed in blood. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the performance parameters, oxidative stress and antioxidant levels or inflammatory response between the active and passive recovery groups. Sprint and isokinetic knee strength were reduced by the same extent after both games. CMJ decreased after the first game and remained reduced throughout the study period. Blood physical stress markers, GSSG and endogenous antioxidants increased with similar amplitude after both games together with unchanged lipid peroxidation. The dietary antioxidants showed either a rapid and persistent change (e.g., tocopherols) or a delayed rise (carotenoids) after the first game. A transient increase occurred in several pro- (e.g., IL-12, TNF-a, MCP-1), anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-4, IL-10, INF-a) and mixed (IL-6) cytokines after the first game. Fewer cytokines increased in response to the second game. CONCLUSION: Two repeated elite female soccer games separated by 72 h induced similar acute changes in several physiological parameters. After the first game, differences in the recovery pattern of the neuromuscular parameters occurred. In particular, the slow recovery of CMJ indicates that special attention should be devoted to the training of explosive force. Furthermore, the recruitment of antioxidants in response to the transient increase in GSSG resulted in the maintenance of the redox-balance in female players. Similarly, a strong and balanced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurred after one single female soccer game. The consequences of the dampened cytokine response during repeated soccer games are, however, unknown. In general, the majority of the parameters had recovered prior to the second game and the physiological alterations induced by the first game did not affect the performance of players in the second game. Finally, active recovery training conducted after a soccer game does not accelerate the recovery time for neuromuscular, oxidative stress, antioxidant and inflammatory responses in elite female players.

    List of papers
    1. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery
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    2008 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 372-380Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5025 (URN)10.1249/mss.0b013e31815b8497 (DOI)18202563 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-01-21 Created: 2009-01-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma antioxidant responses and oxidative stress following a soccer game in elite female players
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    2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 600-608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to investigate markers of oxidative stress and levels of endogenous and dietary antioxidants in 16 elite female soccer players in response to a 90-min game (average intensity 82+/-3% HRpeak). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 21 h after the game. Plasma-oxidized glutathione, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH:GSSG) and lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma endogenous [uric acid, total glutathione (TGSH)] and dietary antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and polyphenols) were analyzed using liquid chromatography and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Exercise induced an acute increase (P<0.05) in GSSG, uric acid, TGSH, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. In parallel, the GSH:GSSG ratio and polyphenols decreased (P<0.05). GSSG, GSH:GSSG ratio, uric acid, TGSH, and ascorbic acid returned to baseline at 21 h, while polyphenols and alpha-tocopherol remained altered. Total carotenoids increased above baseline only at 21 h (P<0.05). Lipid peroxidation, measured by d-ROMs, remained unchanged throughout the study. Thus, intermittent exercise in well-trained female athletes induces a transient increase in GSSG and a decrease in the GSH:GSSG ratio, which is effectively balanced by the recruitment of both endogenous and dietary antioxidants, resulting in the absence of lipid peroxidation measured by d-ROMs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keywords
    d-ROMs, glutathione, lipid peroxidation, polyphenols, intermittent exercise, endurance training
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10875 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00987.x (DOI)000279905400008 ()19706000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77955127862 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in the inflammatory plasma cytokine response following two elite female soccer games separated by a 72-h recovery
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    2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated changes in a large battery of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in elite female soccer players following two 90-min games separated by a 72-h active or passive recovery. Blood samples were taken from 10 players before, within 15-20 min, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first game and within 15-20 min after the second game. The leukocyte count was analyzed, together with several plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, using a multiplex bead array system. After the first and second game, the total leukocytes and neutrophils increased significantly. Likewise, increases (P<0.05) in pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (INF-gamma), IL-17], chemokines [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-8 and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG)], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2R, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13, INF-alpha) and the mixed cytokine IL-6 were observed. Leukocyte and cytokine levels were normalized within 21 h. Active recovery (low-intensity exercises) did not affect the cytokine responses. A dampened cytokine response was observed after the second game as only IL-12, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8 and MIG increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, a robust pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine response occurs after the first but not the second soccer game. The implications of the dampened cytokine response in female players after the second game are unknown.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malden, USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
    Keywords
    Inflammation, intermittent exercise, active recovery, chemokines, training
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10876 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00989.x (DOI)000281666200006 ()19765242 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956495319 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in plasma endogenous and dietary antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were studied following two 90-min elite female soccer games separated by 72 h of either active or passive recovery. The active recovery group (n=8) trained for one hour at 22 and 46 h after the first game (low-intensity cycling and resistance training)while the passive group rested(n=8). Blood samples were taken before, immediately after, 21, 45 and 69 h after the first and immediately after the second game. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants were not affected by active recovery. The oxidative stress marker oxidized glutathione increased by the same extent after both games, while the lipid peroxidation marker diacrons reactive-oxygen metabolites remained unchanged. The endogenous antioxidants total glutathione, uric acid and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay increased immediately after both games with the same amplitude, while increases in cysteine, cysteine-glycine and total thiols reached significant levels only after the second game. The changes in dietary antioxidants after the first game were either rapid and persistent (tocopherols, ascorbic acid increased; polyphenols decreased) or delayed (carotenoids). This resulted in high pre-second game levels of tocopherols, ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Polyphenols returned to baseline at 69 h and were not affected by the second game. In conclusion, the soccer-associated dietary but not endogenous antioxidant defence is persistent. Similar acute oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant responses and dissimilar dietary antioxidant reactions occur during two repeated female soccer games. Finally, the complex antioxidant response to soccer is not affected by active recovery training.

    Keywords
    Intermittent exercise, training, recovery, free radicals, football
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10881 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-01 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Caldeborg, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Intergenerational touch in PE: a student perspective2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis takes its point of departure in the research field of intergenerational touch in Physical Education (PE). Previous research in the field have mainly been conducted from a teacher’s perspective and has shown that teachers of PE have become more cautious about using physical contact in recent years. The reasons for this more cautious attitude concerning physical contact is above all, the risk f being falsely suspected of sexual harassment. Previous research has, in a general way, also shown that physical contact in PE is a gendered issue with heteronormative points of departure The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate intergenerational touch in PE from a student perspective. More specifically the aims are to investigate physical contact between teachers and students in PE from a student perspective (paper I), and to investigate which discursive resources students draw on to conceptualize physical contact between teacher and student in PE in relation to heteronormativity (paper II). Six focus group interviews using photo elicitation have been conducted with students at an upper secondary school in Sweden. In paper I it is the concept of the didactic contract that is the theoretical starting point. The results show that, generally, the students support physical contact as a pedagogical tool if the physical contact has a good purpose according to the students. An implicit didactic contract is formed when student and teacher agree on when, how or why physical contact is used as a pedagogical tool. In paper II, the theoretical inspiration comes from Foucault and his work with discourses. The results show that the students’ talk is colored by the heteronormative discourse in society. This is especially expressed when young female students talk about male PE teachers. Heteronormativity is taken for granted and is not really challenged. Students generally support physical contact as a pedagogical tool in PE, however it is a very complex issue and puts high demands on PE teachers’ professionalism.

    List of papers
    1. Touching the didactic contract: a student perspective on intergenerational touch in PE
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Touching the didactic contract: a student perspective on intergenerational touch in PE
    2019 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 256-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A growing anxiety around intergenerational touch in educational settings has both emerged and increased in recent years. Previous research reveals that Physical Education (PE) teachers have become more cautious in their approaches to students and they avoid physical contact or other behaviour that could be regarded as suspicious (Fletcher, 2013; Öhman, 2016; Piper, Garratt, & Taylor, 2013). Some also feel anxious about how physical contact might be perceived by the students. The purpose of this article is to investigate physical contact between teachers and students in PE from a student perspective. This is understood through the didactic contract. For this purpose, focus group interviews using photo elicitation have been conducted with upper secondary school students in Sweden. One of the major findings is that intergenerational touch is purpose bound, that is, physical contact is considered relevant if the teacher has a good intention with using physical contact. The main agreements regarding physical contact as purpose bound are the practical learning and emotional aspects, such as learning new techniques, preventing injury, closeness and encouragement. The didactic contract is in these aspects stable and obvious. The main disagreements are when teachers interfere when the students want to feel capable or when teachers interfere when physical contact is not required in the activity. In these aspects the didactic contract is easily breached. It is also evident that personal preference has an impact on how physical contact is perceived. In conclusion, we can say that physical contact in PE is not a question of appropriate or inappropriate touch in general, but rather an agreement between the people involved about what is expected. Consequently, we should not ban intergenerational touch, but rather focus on teachers’ abilities to deal professionally with the didactic contract regarding physical contact.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxon, UK: Routledge, 2019
    Keywords
    Intergenerational touch, physical education, student perspective, didactic contract, physical contact
    National Category
    Pedagogy Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62117 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2017.1346600 (DOI)000457147700004 ()2-s2.0-85021831746 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    “Don’t touch! – Pedagogical consequences of the ‘forbidden’ body in Physical Education”
    Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Intergenerational touch in relation to heteronormativity in Physical Education: a student perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intergenerational touch in relation to heteronormativity in Physical Education: a student perspective
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70141 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Eliason, Gabriella
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Sceletal muscle characteristics and physical activity patterns in COPD2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Besides abnormities within the respiratory system COPD is also associated with effects outside the lungs, so called systemic effects. One systemic effect that has been highlighted is skeletal muscle dysfunction which has also been associated with reduced exercise capacity. Apart from changes in muscle morphology, low levels of physical activity have also been suggested as a plausible mediator of reduced exercise capacity in COPD. The aim of this thesis was to study muscle morphology and physical activity patterns in patients with different degrees of COPD and to examine the associations between muscle morphology, physical activity and exercise capacity in these patients. Skeletal muscle morphology was found to shift towards a more glycolytic muscle profile in COPD patients and changes in muscle morphology were found to be correlated to disease severity and to exercise capacity. Muscle capillarization was also found to be lower in COPD compared with healthy subjects and to be correlated to disease severity and exercise capacity. When studying signalling pathways involved in muscle capillarization, an overexpression of VHL was found in patients with mild and moderate COPD compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, COPD patients were found to be less physically active compared with healthy subjects and the level of physical activity was associated with exercise capacity.In conclusion, changes in skeletal muscle morphology and low levels of physical activity are present in COPD patients and may partly explain the lower exercise capacity observed in these patients. The more glycolytic muscle profile in COPD is suggested to be mediated by hypoxia and low levels of physical activity in this patient group. Furthermore, increased levels of VHL may lead to impaired transduction of the hypoxic signalling pathway, which may contribute to the decreased muscle capillarization observed in COPD.

    List of papers
    1. Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD
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    2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 865-870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined exercise capacity and muscle morphology in patients with different severities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-three patients and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited. Based on the severity of airflow obstruction, patients were divided into two subgroups. Exercise capacity was determined using a 6-min walk test. Muscle fiber composition, fiber area and number of satellite cells/muscle fiber were determined in muscle biopsies using immunohistochemistry. A progressive decline in exercise capacity was noted with ascending disease severity. Furthermore, a correlation between reduction in exercise capacity and changes in muscle fiber composition was observed in COPD. The group with severe and very severe COPD had a lower proportion of type I and a higher proportion of type IIa fibers compared with the other groups. In severe and very severe COPD, a reduction in fiber area of type IIa fibers was also seen. The number of satellite cells/muscle fiber did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, a decline in exercise capacity occurs already in mild and moderate COPD, indicating that the 6-min walk test is a reliable indicator of disease severity. Furthermore, changes in skeletal muscle morphology are associated with disease severity while muscle regenerative capacity is not altered.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2009
    Keywords
    Activities of Daily Living/*psychology, Adaptation; Psychological, Aged, Aged; 80 and over, Attitude to Health, Body Image, Dependency (Psychology), Female, Health Services Needs and Demand, Humans, Interpersonal Relations, Male, Middle Aged, Models; Psychological, Neoplasms/psychology, Nursing Methodology Research, Palliative Care/methods/*psychology, Power (Psychology), Quality of Life/psychology, Questionnaires, Respite Care/psychology, Self Concept, Social Support, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Physiology Respiratory Medicine and Allergy Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3417 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00858.x (DOI)000272132200014 ()18980606 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-70450260481 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-04 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Overexpression of von Hippel-Lindau protein in skeletal muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overexpression of von Hippel-Lindau protein in skeletal muscles of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
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    2009 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Pathology, ISSN 0021-9746, E-ISSN 1472-4146, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim: A Significant number of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit skeletal muscle wasting and decreased capillary area formation which have been correlated to increased mortality. The current study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms mediating decreased capillary formation in COPD.

    Methods: Twenty-four COPD patients and twelve matching controls were recruited. COPD patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe groups according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the tibialis anterior muscle. Fibre typing and capillary formation together with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1á and HIF-3á ), vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF-A, -B and -C isoforms) and von Hippel Lindau (VHL) were determined. VHL expression and localization was further studied by immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Skeletal muscle capillary formation was significantly decreased with ascending disease severity. Compared to controls, a tendency to mRNA overexpression of HIF-1á, HIF-3á and VEGF isoforms was observed at mild and moderate COPD that decreased at the severe stage. By contrast, skeletal muscle biopsies from COPD patients exhibited significant overexpression of VHL both on the mRNA and protein levels by immunohistochemistry. VHL protein was further determined to be localized to satellite cells.

    Conclusions: Overexpression of VHL was identified in the skeletal muscle of patients with COPD. Increased VHL activity may exert a negative impact on transducing the hypoxic signal and may contribute to decreased capillarization in skeletal muscles of patients with COPD.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2009
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cell and Molecular Biology
    Research subject
    Pathology; Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-3418 (URN)10.1136/jcp.2008.057190 (DOI)000262420400018 ()18818266 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-58349102711 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-12-04 Created: 2008-12-04 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    2010 (English)In: Respiratory research (Online), ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 11, article id 97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is hypothesized that decreased capillarization of limb skeletal muscle is implicated in the decreased exercise tolerance in COPD patients. We have recently demonstrated decreased number of capillaries per muscle fibre (CAF) but no changes in CAF in relation to fibre area (CAFA), which is based on the diffusion distance between the capillary and muscle fibre. The aim of the current study is to investigate the muscle-to-capillary interface which is an important factor involved in oxygen supply to the muscle that has previously been suggested to be a more sensitive marker for changes in the capillary bed compared to CAF and CAFA.

    Methods: 23 COPD patients and 12 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Muscle-to-capillary interface was assessed in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle using the following parameters:

    1) The capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:Fi) which is defined as the sum of the fractional contributions of all capillary contacts around the fibre

    2) The ratio between C:Fi and the fibre perimeter (CFPE-index)

    3) The ratio between length of capillary and fibre perimeter (LC/PF) which is also referred to as the index of tortuosity.

    Exercise capacity was determined using the 6-min walking test.

    Results: A positive correlation was found between CFPE-index and ascending disease severity with CFPE-index for type I fibres being significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between exercise capacity and CFPE-index for both type I and type IIa fibres.

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that the muscle-to-capillary interface is disturbed in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with COPD and that interface is strongly correlated to increased disease severity and to decreased exercise capacity in this patient group.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, United Kingdom: BioMed Central, 2010
    Keywords
    COPD, muscle-capillary interface, CFPE-index, LC/PF, tortuosity
    National Category
    Physiology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12493 (URN)10.1186/1465-9921-11-97 (DOI)000282550500002 ()20633289 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-77956692758 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2010-11-19 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2018-09-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Physical activity patterns in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity patterns in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It has previously been suggested that exercise capacity is decreased in COPD patients and that it is associated with degree of disease. The reduced exercise capacity may plausibly be due to low levels of physical activity in this patient group. In the present study we aimed to assess exercise capacity and physical activity in different stages of COPD and to examine the associations between exercise capacity, pulmonary function and degree of physical activity.

    Methods: 44 COPD patients and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. Exercise capacity was assessed using the 6 minute walking test and physical activity was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer worn all waking hours during seven days.

    Results: Mean exercise capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. Mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately active were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD compared to healthy subjects while no differences in time spent sedentary were observed between the study groups. Pulmonary function, mean physical activity level and time spent at least moderately physically active were significantly associated with exercise capacity in the patients.

    Conclusions: Patients with moderate and severe COPD are significantly less physically active compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, mean physical activity level as well as physical activity of at least moderate intensity are positively associated with exercise capacity in COPD patients while time spent sedentary is not which stresses an important role of physical activity on exercise capacity in this patient group. 

    National Category
    Physiology Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Physiology; Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-12495 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-11-18 Created: 2010-11-18 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Ericson, Helena
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    A Salutogenic perspective on resistance training: a study on healthy old adult women2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people aged 60 years and over has doubled since 1980and the World Health Organization predicts that the population of over60s will reach 2 billion by the year 2050. An ageing population poses bothchallenges and opportunities for society and for individuals. Whilst theseare positive statements, increases in life spans do not directly lead to increasesin health spans. The naturally occurring ageing process can leadto reductions in functionality and, in order to address this, scholars haveargued the benefits of regularly engaging in physical activity, and especiallyresistance training. Therefore, an important challenge for modernsociety is to develop strategies that delay the onset of disease, such as interventionsthat include physical activity. This licentiate thesis investigatesolder women’s physical activity in a resistance training context and howthis affects different aspects of their health.The overall aim of the thesis is to explore healthy and physically activeolder women’s experiences of what maintains and enhances their healthafter starting resistance training.This thesis used a quantitative and a qualitative approach to investigatea group of old adult women. Data collection was structured in questionnaires(n=32) with one intervention group and one control group for thepaper I, and focus group interviews (n=14) in paper II. Paper I studied theeffects of resistance training on physically active and healthy olderwomen. Paper II relates to the women who continued to exercise after theresistance training intervention ended in order to explore their health resources.The theoretical framework used in this thesis is a movement towardshealth as explained by salutogenic theory.This thesis showed that resistance training has positive effects on psychologicalwell-being and is important because it not only benefits thosewho are physically inactive, but also those who are already physically activeand healthy.From a salutogenic perspective, physical activity provides a meaningful,comprehensible and manageable way for older women to engage in theongoing process of maintaining health.

    List of papers
    1. Resistance training is linked to heightened positive motivational state and lower negative affect among healthy women aged 65–70
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resistance training is linked to heightened positive motivational state and lower negative affect among healthy women aged 65–70
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Women & Aging, ISSN 0895-2841, E-ISSN 1540-7322, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 366-381Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance training (RT) improves overall health, but the psychological effects of RT in healthy old adults have not been tested. The aim of this study was to investigate a sample of 65–70-year-old healthy and physically active women to assess their sense of coherence, health-related quality of life, hope, and affect, before and after taking part in a 24-week RT intervention (N = 14), compared to controls (N = 18). Findings showed a significant increase in hope (p = 0.013) and a significant decrease in negative affect (p = 0.002). Starting RT after age 65 does not appear to negatively impact on women’s psychological health but seems to be associated with important psychological health benefits.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2018
    Keywords
    Healthy aging, hope, negative affect, psychological outcomes, resistance training
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Geriatrics
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-57052 (URN)10.1080/08952841.2017.1301720 (DOI)000443902100002 ()28375777 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85017094736 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-12 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Health resources, ageing and physical activity: a study of physically active women aged 69–75 years
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health resources, ageing and physical activity: a study of physically active women aged 69–75 years
    2018 (English)In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 206-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on issues relating to ageing, physical activity and health are based on an understanding of what causes illness, rather than what promotes health. The health benefits of physical activity relate to questions about how to avoid physical inactivity and overcoming barriers to participating in physical activity, rather than why older people continue to be physically active. The aim of this study was to explore health resources in relation to physical activity, especially resistance training, that physically active women between the ages of 69–75 years characterise as important for the maintenance of health. In order to investigate these health resources, the study drew on salutogenic theory and the concept of sense of coherence. The analysed data came from interviews with 14 physically active Swedish women aged 69–75 years who had previously taken part in a resistance training intervention, but who also had continued to engage in physical activity and resistance training when the intervention ended. We identified seven health resources, social relations and care, positive energy, self-worth, capability in and about physical activity, the habit of exercising, identity as an exercising person and womanhood related to physical activity, in this case resistance training, that physically active women aged between 69 and 75 years characterised as important for maintaining their health. In conclusion, physical activity carried out in a stable group of peers provided a meaningful, comprehensible and manageable way for these older women to engage in the on-going process of maintaining health.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2018
    Keywords
    Health resources, exercise, resistance training, salutogenesis, older adults
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61946 (URN)10.1080/2159676X.2017.1393453 (DOI)000431127700005 ()2-s2.0-85031919728 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-10-24 Created: 2017-10-24 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Folkesson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Heat shock proteins in exercised human skeletal muscle2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise is considered as an important stressor accompanied by concerted molecular and cellular changes leading to adaptations at the level of skeletal muscle size and function. An important protein family produced by cells in response to stressful conditions is the heat shock proteins (HSPs). It is suggested that the different HSPs play specific roles in acute and longterm responses to exercise-induced stress. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the expression of four different HSPs (αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70) in human skeletal muscle exposed to exercise, with a special emphasis on the role played by HSP27 in the hypertrophy of human skeletal muscle.

    One of the major findings was the fibre type-specific expression of HSPs in resting human skeletal muscle, including the preferential expression of HSP27 in fast type II muscle fibres. Another finding was the occurrence of training background-related differences in the expression of HSPs. Also, a cytoplasmic relocation of HSP27, occurring specifically in type II muscle fibres, was shown in response to a single bout of resistance exercise. Interestingly, there were no corresponding changes in response to an endurance exercise bout, suggesting that HSP27 may be specifically involved in the adaptations to resistance exercise. In order to test this hypothesis, an in-vitro exercise model based on the electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells was developed. The EPS protocol, including an 8 h restitution period, induced a significant hypertrophy of muscle cells together with molecular changes similar to those previously described in response to exercise in humans. The role of HSP27 in the hypertrophy of human muscle cells was examined through the downregulation of HSP27. Based on data from morphological and microarray analyses, findings indicate that HSP27 is not mandatory for the hypertrophy of human muscle cells. Overall, the present thesis clarified the expression of different HSPs in human skeletal muscle and provided an in-vitro-based approach for the elucidation of the exact role played by HSPs in the adaptations of human skeletal muscle to exercise.

    List of papers
    1. The expression of heat shock protein in human skeletal muscle: effects of muscle fibre phenotype and training background
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The expression of heat shock protein in human skeletal muscle: effects of muscle fibre phenotype and training background
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 209, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Exercise-induced adaptations of skeletal muscle are related to training mode and can be muscle fibre type specific. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein expression in type I and type II muscle fibres in resting skeletal muscle of subjects with different training backgrounds.

    Methods: Three groups of subjects were included: healthy active not engaged in any training programme (ACT, n = 12), resistance trained (RES, n = 6) and endurance trained (END, n = 8). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis, and immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain I and IIA, αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70.

    Results: In ACT and RES, but not in END, a fibre type–specific expression with higher staining intensity in type I than type II fibres was seen for αB-crystallin. The opposite (II > I) was found for HSP27 in subjects from ACT (6 of 12 subjects) and RES (3 of 6), whereas all subjects from END displayed uniform staining. HSP60 showed no fibre-specific expression. HSP70 displayed a fibre-specific expression pattern (I > II) in ACT (4 of 12), but not in END or RES.

    Conclusion: This study shows that the level of expression of the different HSPs in human skeletal muscle is influenced by muscle fibre phenotype. The fibre type–specific expression of HSP70 is influenced by resistance and endurance training, whereas those of αB-crystallin and HSP27 is influenced only by endurance training, suggesting the existence of a training-modality-specific action on the adaptive processes including heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2013
    Keywords
    Adaptation, endurance, heat shock protein, immunohistochemistry, resistance
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Physiology/Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30127 (URN)10.1111/apha.12124 (DOI)000322950400006 ()23710799 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84881557932 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agency:

    Nordea Foundation

    Available from: 2013-08-06 Created: 2013-08-06 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. Immunohistochemical changes in the expression of HSP27 in exercised human vastus lateralis muscle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunohistochemical changes in the expression of HSP27 in exercised human vastus lateralis muscle
    Show others...
    2008 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 194, no 3, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The role of HSP27 in the adaptive process of skeletal muscle to exercise, especially in humans, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate immunohistochemical changes in HSP27 expression in human vastus lateralis muscle following resistance and endurance exercises.

    Methods: Two different exercise protocols were used: (1) one-leg ergometer cycling (EC, n = 6) consisting of two 30-min bouts at 40% and 75% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively, and (2) leg extension resistance exercise (RE, n = 9) including 10 sets of eight repetitions at a load corresponding to 70% of one maximal repetition (1RM). Immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the location of HSP27 protein in muscle biopsies from human vastus lateralis.

    Results: Our results show that RE, but not EC, induced a significant appearance of scattered accumulations of HSP27 protein in muscle fibres from five of nine subjects. The number of fibres with accumulation of HSP27 in RE ranged from 0% to 32% with a mean of 6.3% of the total number of fibres.

    Conclusion: We conclude that this rapid HSP27 protein relocation after RE is an important player in the cellular remodelling of human muscle fibres in response to exercise involving high-force contractions, but not in response to endurance exercises.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell Publishing, 2008
    Keywords
    adaptation, endurance and resistance exercise, fibre type, heat shock protein, stress response
    National Category
    Physiology
    Research subject
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4751 (URN)10.1111/j.1748-1716.2008.01875.x (DOI)000259863100005 ()18489727 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-53549112177 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports
    Available from: 2008-11-24 Created: 2008-11-24 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
    3. Electrical pulse stimulation: an in vitro exercise model for the induction of human skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy. A proof-of-concept study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical pulse stimulation: an in vitro exercise model for the induction of human skeletal muscle cell hypertrophy. A proof-of-concept study
    2017 (English)In: Experimental Physiology, ISSN 0958-0670, E-ISSN 1469-445X, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 1405-1413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    New Findings:

    • What is the central question of this study?

    Is electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) an in vitro exercise model able to elicit the hypertrophy of human muscle cells?

    • What is the main finding and its importance?

    The addition of a restitution period of 8h after EPS induces the enlargement of human muscle cells, a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise. This is supported by downregulationof myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass, and increased phosphorylated mTOR and 4E-BP1, key factors in the growth cascade. This proof-of-concept study provides a model of physiologically mediated muscle growth, which will be the basis for future studies aiming to depict molecular events governing the hypertrophy of human muscle cells.

    Electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) of muscle cells has previouslybeenused as an in vitro exercise model. The present study aimedto establish an EPS protocol promoting the hypertrophy ofhuman muscle cells, which represents a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise in humans. We hypothesized that adding a resting period after EPS would be crucial for the occurrence of the morphological change. Myoblasts obtained from human muscle biopsies (n=5) were differentiated into multinucleated myotubes and exposed to 8h of EPS consisting of 2ms pulses at 12V, with a frequency of 1Hz. Myotube size was assessed using immunohistochemistry immediately, 4 and 8h after completed EPS. Gene expression and phosphorylation status of selected markers of hypertrophy were assessed using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Release of the myokine interleukin-6 in culture medium was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We demonstrated a significant increase (31 +/- 14%; P=0.03) in the size of myotubes when EPS was followed by an 8h resting period, but not immediately or 4h after completion of EPS. The response was supported by downregulation (P=0.04) of the gene expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass, and an increase in phosphorylated mTOR (P=0.03) and 4E-BP1 (P=0.01), which are important factors in the cellular growth signalling cascade. The present work demonstrates that EPS is an in vitro exercise model promoting the hypertrophy of human muscle cells, recapitulating a major physiological end-point to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2017
    Keywords
    Cell growth, muscle contraction, myotube morphology
    National Category
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-61685 (URN)10.1113/EP086581 (DOI)000414175100010 ()28861930 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032974682 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-11-14 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
    4. HSP27 is not mandatory for the hypertrophy of human skeletal muscle cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>HSP27 is not mandatory for the hypertrophy of human skeletal muscle cells
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69017 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-09-24 Created: 2018-09-24 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Burnout in competitive and elite athletes2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensified training regimes and increasing competitive pressure make some athletes leave sports with shattered hopes and dreams. A number of these athletes drop out of sports due to burnout, which is characterized by an enduring experience of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sense of accomplishment and devaluation of sport participation as a consequence of prolonged chronic stress. Loss of engagement and diminished motivation also characterize burnout. But burnout is more than just a simple stress reaction, as not all athletes who experience stress burn out. Study I investigates the prevalence of burnout among competitive athletes. The number of athletes showing high levels of burnout was found to be between 1 and 9%. The number of athletes suffering from severe burnout was estimated at 1-2%. Contrary to what has been speculated, burnout was not more common in individual sports than in team sports. Study II investigated the burnout process using a case-study approach. It was found that burnout can evolve with different levels of severity, time perspectives and characteristics. There appears to be a relationship between overtraining syndrome and burnout, and the study gave support to the notion that burnout is the most severe outcome on the training fatigue continuum. Early success might lead to high expectations and an inner pressure to train, which in the three cases made the athletes ignore signs of maladaptation. Performance-based self-esteem appears to be a “driving force” in the burnout process. In Study III the burnout experience was investigated using qualitative interviews. Lack of recovery, “too much sports” and high external demands were described as causes of burnout. A stressful situation with multiple demands from sport, school and social relationships leads to a total overload, which has both physiological and psychological consequences. Critical factors were a unidimensional identity, performance-based self-esteem, an inflexible organization and feelings of entrapment. These restraining factors made the athletes remain in sports despite negative outcomes. Thus the three studies indicate that burnout is a serious problem in competitive and elite sports, that restraining factors offer an explanation for why athletes remain in sport despite negative outcomes, and that striving for self-esteem is crucial in the development of burnout.

    List of papers
    1. Prevalence of burnout in competitive adolescent athletes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of burnout in competitive adolescent athletes
    2007 (English)In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the factorial validity of the Eades Burnout Inventory (EABI) and the prevalence of burnout in adolescent elite athletes and whether burnout is more common in individual sports than in team sports. The EABI was distributed to 980 athletes (402 females and 578 males) in 29 different sports. Confirmatory-factor analyses revealed an acceptable factorial validity for a theoretically supported four-factor model of the EABI. Between 1% and 9% of the athletes displayed elevated burnout scores on these four subscales. The hypothesis of higher prevalence of burnout in individual sports was, however, not supported. Furthermore, no correlation between training load and burnout scores was found. These findings suggest that factors other than training load must be considered when athletes at risk for burnout are investigated.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2868 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-28 Created: 2007-12-28 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The process of burnout: A multiple case study of three elite endurance athletes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The process of burnout: A multiple case study of three elite endurance athletes
    Show others...
    2007 (English)In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the process of burning out in endurance athletes. The experiences of three elite cross-country skiers who left Their sport due to burnout were explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and inductively analyzed. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and training logs were used to validate the interviews and to enrich the analysis. The burnout process was found to evolve with different severity and time perspectives in the three cases. Athletic identity and achievement strivings to validate self-esteem were found to be important driving forces in the burnout process. Also, chronic lack of mental and physical recovery as well as early skiing success leading to high expectations comprised common themes in the burnout process.

    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2869 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-12-28 Created: 2007-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A qualitative analysis of burnout in elite Swedish athletes
    2008 (English)In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 800-816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To extend the understanding of burnout in elite athletes, including personal experiences and perceived antecedents.

    Design and Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Swedish 22- to 26-year-old elite athletes who had quit sport due to burnout. The interview transcripts were inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis,

    Results: The findings support the notion of athlete burnout as a multidimensional syndrome. While stressors like multiple demands. "too much sport," lack of recovery and high expectations were considered primary causes of burnout by the respondents, high motivation, unidimensional athletic identity. self-esteem strivings, high ego goals, negative perfectionist traits and feelings of entrapment were also found to be critical contributors. These restraining factors explained why the athletes continued their participation in sport despite a progressive worsening of their condition, and are therefore potentially crucial in the development of burnout.

    Conclusion: Athlete burnout appears to be it complex interaction of multiple stressors, inadequate recovery and frustration from unfulfilled expectations, which is explained partly by maladaptive perfectionist traits and goals. This process is fuelled by a strong drive to validate self-worth, sometimes in conjunction with feelings of entrapment.

    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2870 (URN)10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.11.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-12-28 Created: 2007-12-28 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
  • 7.
    Hellström, John
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Expert performance in golf2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The competition in elite golf is fierce. Players therefore often have psychological, physical, and technical experts supporting them. The associations between these experts focus areas and how they relate to the playing results are valuable to understand, in order to create more effective training programs. The aim of this thesis is therefore to investigate the relationships between physique, technique, and playing results in golf, and to integrate these findings with psychological research on elite golfers.

    Two review studies (A and B) and three empirical studies (I, II, and III) are included. Study A and B provide a theoretical foundation where the relationship of psychological, physiological, and technical variables to playing results is reviewed. The empirical studies (Study I, II, and III) were selected based on the findings in the reviews and the applied needs.

    Study I shows that some stability test results are strongly correlated to swing technique. Study II found that strength tests as measured in absolute strength or power are strongly correlated to clubhead speed for elite players, but relative strength (percentage of body mass) is not. Study III used PGA Tour ShotLink statistics collected over a year to investigate tee shot accuracy, striking distance, and hole scores. It was found that the ability to hit the ball with high accuracy and a long distance is strongly correlated with low hole scores. Furthermore, the type of fairway miss is relevant to consider as well as striking distance in relation to the distance of the hole.

    These results may be used to make gap and needs profiles. Task, personal, and environmental variables should also be considered before giving training advice based on test results. Future studies should further investigate the causality between key areas and playing results, and test the validity of models that may be used to analyze and set goals for elite golfers.

    List of papers
    1. Competitive elite golf: a review of the relationships between playing results, technique and physique
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitive elite golf: a review of the relationships between playing results, technique and physique
    2009 (English)In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 723-741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Elite golfers commonly use fitness and technical training to become more competitive. The aim of this paper was to review the literature regarding the relationships between elite golfers' playing results, technique and physique. The competitive outcome is a direct function of the score. The three golf statistical measures that show the strongest correlations to scoring average are greens in regulation (GIR), scrambling, and putts per GIR. However, more detailed game statistics are needed where the distances to the targets are known before and after the strokes.

    Players affect ball displacement by controlling clubhead velocity and clubface angle during club and ball impact. X-factor studies have produced ambiguous results, possibly caused by different definitions of upper torso, rotation and top of backswing. Higher clubhead speed is generally associated with larger spinal rotation and shoulder girdle protraction at the top of the backswing. It is also associated with higher ground reaction forces and torques, a bottom-up and sequential increase of body segment angular velocities, a rapid increase of spinal rotation and a late adduction of the wrists during the downswing. Players can increase the clubhead speed generated by a swinging motion by actively adding a force couple. Wrist, elbow and shoulder force couple strategies should be differentiated when investigating the technique.

    Physical parameters such as anthropometrics, strength and flexibility are associated with skill level and clubhead speed. Current studies have investigated the linear correlation between arm and shaft lengths and clubhead speed, but a quadratic relationship may be stronger due to changes in moment of inertia. Fitness training can increase and perhaps decrease the clubhead speed and striking distance, depending on training methods and the player's fitness and level of skill. Future studies may focus on individual training needs and the relationship between physique, execution and its relation to accuracy of impact and ball displacement.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Adis, 2009
    Keywords
    Competetive elite golf
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-7780 (URN)10.2165/11315200-000000000-00000 (DOI)000269773900003 ()19691363 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-68949213734 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    The Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports 

    Available from: 2009-08-31 Created: 2009-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers
    2009 (English)In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 845-855Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers (professionals and amateurs with handicaps of <= 4) are investigated. Professional golfers believe that attitude, desire and motivation are important psychological qualities necessary to succeed in tournaments. They are committed to golf, have goals they strive for, make plans, evaluate their performance and systematically train towards improving their game. The study of skilled golfers' traits, as measured by 16 personality factors, has provided ambiguous results and there may be more complex associations not yet investigated in golf. The effect of mood and emotions on golf scores seems to be individual. Differences in personality may explain why mood states, measured by mood state profiles, have not shown a strong correlation to golf scores. Task focus, confidence, imagery, patience, ability to focus on one shot at a time and performing automatically have been found to be important during competition. These variables need to be further researched before, during and after the swing. The psychological processes needed before, during and after the swing differ and should be further specified. A decrease in heart rate and a lower cortical activity moment before the swing may be signs of an optimal performance state. The effect of coping strategies may vary over time, and players should be able to switch and combine different strategies. Pre-shot routine is associated with performance. However, it is not clear if consistency of total duration and behavioural content in pre-shot routine cause improved performance. Pre-shot routine may also be an effect of psychological processes, such as a different task focus. It may facilitate an automatic execution of technique, which can lead to better performance. The psychological variables needed for competitive golf should be related to the physical, technical and game-statistical variables in coaching and future research.

    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-13203 (URN)10.2165/11317760-000000000-00000 (DOI)000270758400004 ()
    Available from: 2011-01-17 Created: 2011-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. The association between stability and swing kinematics of skilled high school golfers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between stability and swing kinematics of skilled high school golfers
    2008 (English)In: Science and Golf V: Proceedings of the World Scientific Congress of Golf / [ed] Debbie Crews, Rafer Lutz, Mesa AZ: Energy in Motion, Inc , 2008, p. 37-43Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relation between common stability tests and the linear and angular kinematics of the pelvis and upper torso. The stability and swing kinematics of 18 skilled high school golfers (mean hcp=-1.9) were measured. Scores obtained from the stability tests were related to both linear and angular kinematics. A decrease in stability in the prone bridge test and one-legged squat was associated with upper body sway away from target during the backswing. Furthermore, a decrease in stability in one-legged squat and supine hip extension was correlated to greater backswing rotation of the pelvis and upper torso. These three tests may provide useful information when deciding whether stability training should be considered to overcome specific technical shortcomings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Mesa AZ: Energy in Motion, Inc, 2008
    Keywords
    Golf, swing kinematics, stability
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21329 (URN)0978873416 (ISBN)9780978873417 (ISBN)
    Conference
    World scientific congress of golf V, Phoenix 2008
    Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. The relation between physical tests, measures, and clubhead speed in elite golfers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relation between physical tests, measures, and clubhead speed in elite golfers
    2008 (English)In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 3, no Supplement 1, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between selected physical tests and clubhead speed, and whether body mass should be considered when presenting the test results. Thirty-three male elite golfers (estimated skill range: hcp +5 to 0, age 18-30 years) participated in the study. The following test categories were measured and compared to clubhead speed with Pearson r correlation: vertical jumps (squat jump, counter movement jump, and counter movement jumps with arm swing); body mass strength (bar dips, pull-ups and vertical sit-ups); one repetition maximal strength (1-RM) (left grip, right grip and squat); and sprint (10 and 20 m). The tests and measures significantly (p < 0.05) related to clubhead speed were body mass, all vertical jumps (peak power and jump height), sprint (mean power), right grip (mass), squat (mass), bar dips (repetitions × body mass), and vertical sit-ups (repetitions × body mass). These tests may be selected when players and coaches wish to analyse physical test results associated to clubhead speed. Peak power in vertical jumps is more strongly related to clubhead speed than jump height, but jump height may be used too. In sprint, mean power should be used for feedback instead of sprint time. Strength test results should be presented in absolute values (kg), not as relative strength. Body mass should be considered in vertical jumps, sprints, and body mass strength tests, but not in 1RM strength tests with external resistance.

    Keywords
    Body Mass, Clubhead Speed, Golf Fitness
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21330 (URN)10.1260/174795408785024207 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    5. Drive for dough: PGA Tour golfers tee shot accuracy, distance and hole score
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drive for dough: PGA Tour golfers tee shot accuracy, distance and hole score
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A player's ability to score low is critical to the tournament outcome in golf. The relations of round scores to fairways hit in regulation or striking distance on two holes per round have been investigated before with some disagreements. The purpose is therefore to examine the relations of hole scores to tee shot accuracy employing several categories and striking distance on par-4 and par-5 holes. The best US PGA tour players' statistics during a season are used, provided by the PGA Tour and ShotLink. Accuracy is categorized as hits of fairway, semi-rough, rough, fairway bunker, water hazard or unplayable, and out of bounds or lost. Distance was measured with laser cameras. It is concluded that the ability to hit the ball with high accuracy and a long distance is strongly correlated with low hole scores. Furthermore, the type of fairway miss is relevant to consider as well as striking distance in relation to the distance of the hole.

    Keywords
    Golf, PGA tour, striking distance, functional accuracy, score
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21335 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-26 Created: 2012-01-26 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Hjälm, Sören
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Utbrändhet och återhämtning bland elitfotbollstränare2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Only a small number of studies dealing with burnout among coaches have been published, and none of these have dealt with burnout among elite soccer coaches in a European context. This thesis – investigating both the burnout and recovery process – includes a longitudinal design spanning ten years. Out of 53 head coaches, from elite soccer teams in Sweden, 47 participated in study 1. Results showed that burnout scores assessed by Maslachs Burnout Inventory (MBI) were generally low, but coaches in women’s premier league showed significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion than coaches in men’s soccer teams. A sub-sample of these 47 coaches was interviewed for study 2, namely those 8 reporting the highest MBI scores. Characteristics of the elite coach professions personality traits and the allover life situation of the coach were identified as risk factors for developing burnout, as well as some retention factors, risking to create detention effects which might worsen the stress levels of the coach. In study 3 and 4, the burnout and recovery processes were examined, respectively. On the basis of descriptions from the coaches, three separate phases are discerned from the burnout process: a phase of restlessness and annoyance, a fatigue phase and finally a phase of exhaustion and burnout, while it is possible to make out four phases in the recovery process: a wake-up process, a phase removing one-self, a phase of reflection and evaluation, and finally a phase of new-orienting one-self. Study 5 revealed that both energy cost reducing strategies and energy boosting activities, were used by the coaches to prevent burnout. Study 6 showed that lack of sufficient recovery periods inhibited a lowering of the burnout levels, but also that lack of adequate coping strategies slowed the recovery process and also that coaches who have experienced burnout have an impaired professional efficiency. Finally, the focus in study 7 was on longterm consequences of burning out. Increased fatigue, diseases, cognitive impairment and a lower stress tolerance were examples of negative consequences, whereas an improved ability to identify stress causes and an enhanced awareness about one’s stress reactions, as well as to reflect and prioritize health, were examples of positive and favourable consequences. It is also urgent that elite clubs strive to create a good psycho-social work environment, which will function as a buffer against stress. 

  • 9.
    Huitfeldt, Åke
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Passar jag in?: Nyanlända ungdomars möte med idrottsundervisning2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study deals with newly arrived young people’s perceptions of Physical Education and Health (PEH). Many in this group are not familiar with the culturally specific elements of Swedish PEH. The study highlights the meanings they attach to participation in PEH and the consequences on their participation in PEH. The study is based on qualitative interviews with six young immigrants in a medium sized city in Sweden. They have come from different countries, have different religions and are of different genders. The results have been interpreted using Dewey’s pragmatic transactional approach. Some results from the study are that school PEH is an important activity for the interviewees offering opportunities, new contacts, improvement of language and other skills. Their narratives indicate that their physical health does not constitute a limitation but rather an opportunity to participate in PEH. On the other hand, certain aspects of their psychological and social health may sometimes constitute limitations to their participation in PEH. The girls are affected both by the market forces norm that tells that they should be nice and sweet and of their own cultural norm that tells that they should not be too physically active. It is easier for the boys than the girls in the study to participate in sports both in school and during leisure time. On the basis of the results of the study and of previous research, the discussion suggests ways of facilitating this group’s participation in PEH, the important point being that they should be treated as individuals.

  • 10.
    Isberg, Jenny
    Örebro University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viljan till fysisk aktivitet: en intervention avsedd att stimulera ungdomar att bli fysiskt aktiva2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical education (PE) at school may play an important role in the process of becoming physically active in the adolescence and in developing a physically active lifestyle. The opportunities for teachers to provide positive physical activity experiences to the student population extend regularly over the school terms. For some students, PE can be the only opportunity they have to be physically active. Therefore it is important that the students become motivated to practice physical activity and know the purpose with physical activity. The overall purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the possibilities to motivate youth, 12-16 years old, to practice physical activity and hopefully to stimulate them to continue to be physically active in young adulthood. The sample consisted of 122 Swedish compulsory school students (12-16 years old), 51 girls and 71 boys, who were either physically inactive, physically active but not formal members of sport clubs, or physically active and members of a sport club. They used a self-monitoring instrument to describe their physical activity and we compared their self-reported physical activity with their actual VO2 capacity and physical status. The self-monitoring instrument was further validated against an activity monitor, RT3. The intervention lasted one and a half years, and four to five years later a follow-up study was done. Using a quasi-experimental design, the three groups of participants were compared with youths who did not use the selfmonitoring instrument. The main findings were that the associations between the accelerometer counts and the activities the students recorded in the self-monitoring instrument were high. The participants in Group 1 (physically inactive) continued exercising nearly to the same extent as during the intervention while youths in a matched control group did not develop regular physical activity habits. Concerning Group 2 (exercisers), participants in the intervention group were more physically active both during the intervention and at follow-up, compared with a matched control group of exercisers who did not use the self-monitoring instrument. In Group 3 (sport team members), there was no difference between the intervention group and a matched control group after the intervention or at follow-up.

    The conclusion of these main findings was that when someone motivates students to continue being physically active and to change their physical activity patterns in a positive direction, the self-monitoring instrument can be a door-opener for youths who are physically inactive or regularly active outside sports clubs.

  • 11.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Träffar vi alltid rätt?: lärarens tal om resurser för elevers lärande i ämnet Idrott och hälsa2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on Physical Education and Health (PEH) in Sweden has shown PEH teachers more or less taking learning for granted when instructing children and adolescents to move, work out sweat and be active (e.g. Öhman, 2007; Lundvall & Meckbach, 2008; Öhman & Quennerstedt, 2008; Quennerstedt, et al., 2008; Ekberg, 2009). Reflections on student learning tend to be overshadowed by discussions of planning of units and methods (Skolinspektionen, 2012). The aim of the study is to build on previous research and examine PEH teachers reasoning on learning in PEH thru two major questions; What concepts are given meaning when PEH teachers are discussing learning resources in PEH? and How can we understand those concepts from an situated perspective? A sociocultural perspective on learning is used as a theoretical framework where concepts drawing from Lave and Wenger’s (1991) situated perspective on learning inspired the study design. Related to the purpose of the study, video elicited focus group interviews with five experienced PEH teachers was used as a method to collect data. Data was analyzed in two steps using (i) a qualitative content analysis and (ii) as a second step, PEH teacher’s discussions on learning resources in relation to a situated perspective on learning. Findings shows that the respondents are discussing relational resources as (i) Students feeling secure, (ii) Students positioning, (iii) Visible variation, (iv) Content utility and (v) Students’ and teachers’ different agendas. Analysis also shows discussions on individual resources as (i) Student striving for position and (ii) Creation of own purposes. From a situated perspective the respondents are foremost discussing authentic, or contextual environments as resources for learning in which students are creating own of learning curriculums and their thoughts on how it effects student learning. Teachers approaches to national standards and curriculums seem to limit utilization of students own learning curriculums.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Qigong: acute affective responses in a group of regular exercisers2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qigong is a Chinese mind-body therapy that aims to, through the use of movements, relaxed breathing and relaxation/meditation, create a healthy flow of life force, qi, in the body, and consequently improve health. A growing number of Qigong studies report beneficial effects on health and well-being. However, little attention has fo-cused on the acute affective responses that accompany single sessions of Qigong ex-ercise. The aim of the present thesis was therefore to study affective reactions to Qigong exercise. In Study I, the effects of Qigong exercise on mood and anxiety were compared to a control group. Results showed partial support for the superiority of Qigong exercise compared to controls. In Study II, different lengths of session time were compared, resulting in similar affective benefits for the 30 and 60-minute ses-sions. In Study III, affective responses were also assessed during the session, using mean scores and individual responses. Results showed an increase toward greater Activated and Deactivated Pleasantness during the session, with the greatest changes at the end of the bout. The majority of individuals reported increased Pleasantness during the Qigong session. Expectations of positive outcomes were significantly as-sociated with only few affective responses. Responses to open-ended questions of af-fective experiences displayed affective reactions mostly toward greater Deactivated Pleasantness. This thesis contributes to a greater understanding of the limited area of Qigong-related affective responses. For the exercisers, Qigong is associated with a greater momentary emotional state. However, due to the highly select group of regu-lar Qigong exercisers, generalizing the results outside the sample population is lim-ited. Theories on active mechanisms in the Qigong-affect relationship, and results from studies of affective responses to similar activities, suggest that other groups of people would also benefit affectively from Qigong exercise. Given the many benefits of positive affect, Qigong exercise may also pose great promises for the enhancement of other areas related to health and well-being. This calls for additional studies.

    List of papers
    1. Acute effects of qigong exercise on mood and anxiety
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute effects of qigong exercise on mood and anxiety
    2008 (English)In: International Journal of Stress Management, ISSN 1072-5245, E-ISSN 1573-3424, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial stress may lead to increased rates of anxiety and depression. Aerobic exercise and mind-body therapies are frequently described as having positive effects on psychological well-being by enhancing mood and reducing anxiety. Few studies, however, have investigated the acute psychological effects of qigong exercise. Fifty-nine regular qigong exercisers (mean age 50.8 years) were randomized to a Qigong or Control group. Pre- and postmeasurements were then compared. POMS-Depression, Anger, and Fatigue, and STAI-State Anxiety scores decreased significantly in the Qigong group but not in the Control group. Results thereby suggest that qigong exercise can produce desirable psychological effects, and Qigong exercise may therefore be included among other activities performed to boost resistance to daily stressors.

    Keywords
    qigong, qi-training, anxiety, mood, emotion
    National Category
    Social Work Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6660 (URN)10.1037/1072-5245.15.2.199 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Acute psychological responses to qigong exercise of varying durations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute psychological responses to qigong exercise of varying durations
    2008 (English)In: THE American journal of Chinese medicine, ISSN 0192-415X, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 449-458Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Qigong exercise has been shown to induce acute psychological changes of a positive nature; but whether longer durations have greater effects than shorter ones is not known. Forty-one regular qigong practitioners therefore engaged in either 30 or 60 min of qigong exercise within a randomized cross-over design. Measures of mood, anxiety, activation, and hedonic tone were obtained pre- and post-exercise. Results showed benefits of the same magnitude in the two conditions: more positive mood states, reduced state anxiety, and enhanced perceived pleasure. Thirty minutes of qigong exercise thereby seems to be sufficient to provide psychological benefits, and with no additional benefits detected after 60 min. This finding is important for those having little time or motivation to engage in activities of longer durations. In addition, health professionals prescribing exercise for health benefits can prescribe shorter exercise sessions with confidence knowing that positive psychological effects can also occur after a shorter exercise bout.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company, 2008
    Keywords
    Exercise; Mood; Anxiolytic; Qigong; Qi-Training; Mind–Body Therapy
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6662 (URN)10.1142/S0192415X08005898 (DOI)18543380 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Affective responses to qigong exercise: a pilot study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Affective responses to qigong exercise: a pilot study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical exercise is frequently associated with positive affective responses – at least more intense exercise; the impact of low-intensity exercise is less researched. The exercise-affect relationship was therefore studied in a group performing low-intensity Qigong exercise through pre-, during, and post-assessments using a modified version of the short Swedish Core Affect Scale complemented with open-ended questions. The results show a shift during exercise toward increased pleasant activated and deactivated affect in the group of 46 women who regularly practice Qigong. Inter-individual responses display positive affective responses, which also increase as the bout proceeds for the majority of exercisers. The results suggest that low-intensity Qigong exercise also produces positive psychological effects of a magnitude similar to what is commonly associated with more intense forms of exercise. These findings have practical implications for the enhancement of positive affect and subjective well-being, not least in groups unable to perform more intense forms of exercise. 2

    National Category
    Social Work
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6663 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-05-07 Created: 2009-05-07 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Jouper, John
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Qigong in daily life: motivation and intention to mindful exercise2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle are identified as major public health problems. A general health goal is therefore to promote an active lifestyle throughout the entire life span. The reasons given for not adopting a physically active lifestyle and/or taking part in vigorous exercise include old age, negative social and physical environments, physical disability and other health related issues. Qigong exercise, a low-intensity Chinese self-care method, has therefore been suggested as an alternative activity to vigorous exercise. There is, however, little knowledge about leisure-time qigong exercisers and their reasons for adherence. The general aim of this thesis was therefore to explore leisure-time medical qigong and those practicing it, and to examine how individuals’ motivation and intention to exercise are related to their actual exercise in daily life. Behavioural changes towards an active lifestyle will be discussed from both medical qigong and exercise psychology perspectives. Suggestions are then summarized into a qigong-based Wellness Coaching Model. Participants were recruited from a qigong association and introductory qigong courses. Data were collected by questionnaires and were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The reasons given for leisure-time medical qigong exercise were to aid recovery from illness and to preserve health. Participants in the low-intensity qigong exercise group studied were somewhat older, and their main reason for participating was to achieve a general feeling of wellness. As a group they had mainly low-stress levels and were highly energized. Concentration on qi-flow during exercise correlates positively with improved health feelings, and exercise is performed with deep mindful concentration three to six times per week for an average of thirty minutes. Perceived stress correlates negatively with health, energy and exercise behaviour suggesting that stress has to be managed in order for wellness to emerge. Intrinsically motivated exercisers are more concentrated, and perceive their stress as lower than that of their more externally motivated counterparts. Strong behaviour intentions are significantly correlated with actual exercise frequency. When exercise is performed in a qigong state, with a heightened level of concentration, adherence is higher than otherwise is the case. Results suggest that health-professionals aiming to secure qigong exercise adherence should stimulate feelings of wellness as an intrinsic motive for exercise, strengthen the individuals’ intention to exercise, and promote a calm energy state (low-stress and high energy) before commencement of exercise.

    List of papers
    1. Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Qigong exercise with concentration predicts increased health
    2006 (English)In: THE American journal of Chinese medicine, ISSN 0192-415X, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 949-957Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Regular physical activity has many positive health effects. Despite this, approximately 50% of all adults are not exercising enough to enjoy better health and may therefore need an alternative to vigorous physical exercise. Qigong offers a gentle way to exercise the body. A questionnaire sample of 253 participants was collected and correlations with the variable Health-now were analyzed. Results showed that Health-now was positively correlated with Number of completed qigong courses (p<.05), with Level of concentration (p<.01), Session-time (p<.01), and Years of practice (p<.05). Among these variables, Concentration predicts an increased feeling of Health (R2 = 0.092). Qigong exercise thereby seems to offer a viable alternative to other more vigorous physical activities when wellness is the primary goal. When interpreted using self-determination theory, qigong seems to satisfy needs related to autonomy, competence and relatedness, thereby primarily attracting individuals who are intrinsically motivated.

    Keywords
    Biyun, qigong, exercise, intrinsic motivation
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5791 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-02-23 Created: 2009-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Intrinsically motivated qigong exercisers are more concentrated and less stressful
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intrinsically motivated qigong exercisers are more concentrated and less stressful
    2008 (English)In: THE American journal of Chinese medicine, ISSN 0192-415X, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1051-1060Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Low-intensity qigong exercise has been suggested as an alternative to more vigorous exercise when striving for health benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether self-determined motivation and perceived stress are related to concentration during exercise, and to the amount of exercise carried out. Leisure-time qigong exercisers (n = 279) were assessed by using the Sport Motivation Scale, Stress and Energy Scale, and by self-rated Concentration. Exercise sessions per week, Session time, and ability to Set a time for exercise, and perceived Disturbance during exercise were also recorded. Participants who were in a Calm energy mood (low-stress, high-energy, able to set a time for exercise), displayed an increased Concentration on qi-flow (R(2) = 0.13) during exercise. An elevated stress-level correlated negatively with Health, Energy, Concentration, Sessions per week, Session time, Sessions performed during the previous week, ability to Set a time for exercise, and feeling Undisturbed during exercise (all p < 0.01). Intrinsic motivation was positively correlated with Concentration (0.24, p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with Stress (-0.19, p < 0.05). Individuals who adhere to a regular qigong exercise regimen are more intrinsically motivated, less stressed, and more concentrated while exercising than those who do not adhere to a regular regime. This suggests that health-professionals need to be aware of these factors when prescribing qigong exercise for health benefits.

    Keywords
    qigong exercise, stress, energy, self-determination, motivation
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5792 (URN)10.1142/S0192415X08006557 (DOI)19051335 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2009-02-23 Created: 2009-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Exercise intention, age and stress predict increased qigong exercise adherence
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise intention, age and stress predict increased qigong exercise adherence
    2009 (English)In: Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, ISSN 1360-8592, E-ISSN 1532-9283, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Adherence to exercise is paramount if desired health effects are to be achieved. Drop out rates in excess of 50% have been reported, with the intensity of the exercise performed frequently blamed. Qigong is a low-intensity mind-body technique that may offer an alternative to more intense modes of exercise. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if exercise motives, exercise intention, age, stress and energy levels predict adherence to qigong exercise. Participants (n=87) were assessed by self-rated retrospective physical activity behavior, by performed Qigong exercise and Concentration level, and by Sport Motivation Scale, Planned Behavior Questionnaire, and Stress and Energy Scale. Exercise intention, Age and Stress predicted Exercise frequency (R2 = .29); when level of Concentration (a non-baseline assessment) was included as a predictor, prediction strength increased (R2 = .38). Results suggest that health-professionals who are aiming to secure activity adherence and exercise frequency, should focus on strengthening the individual’s intention to exercise, promoting a calm energy state before commencement of exercise, and encouraging a heightened level of concentration during exercise.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    qigong exercise, adherence, stress, motivation, planned behavior
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-5793 (URN)10.1016/j.jbmt.2008.08.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-02-23 Created: 2009-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
  • 14.
    Li, Jing
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    The Culturally Significant Key Component of Qigong, ‘Heart adjustment’, is Lost in Translation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qigong is a Chinese traditional ethnic sport that is practised worldwide. In the West it is often applied as an Eastern mind-body intervention. Although clinical trials have reported its positive effects, some scholars have questioned the research design and methodology. It is clear that there is a need for im-provements in the quality and comparability of studies.

    A lack of knowledge about the meditative aspect of Qigong may con-tribute to poor research quality. Therefore, the aims of this dissertation are to explore the meaning and functions of the culturally significant key component ‘Heart

    1 adjustment’ and to investigate how this basic technical component and the concept of Qigong are expressed in scientific litera-ture. Through the application of two research methods – a cross-cultural linguistic approach and a case-based comparative method – the disserta-tion shows that the meaning of ‘Heart adjustment’ relates to eight tech-niques and functions in Qigong training which affect: 1) the emotions, 2) the physical heart, 3) the mind, 4) virtue, 5) wisdom, 6) concentration, 7) desires and vision and 8) a person’s way of life and attitude. Unfortu-nately, the ‘Heart adjustment’ aspect of Qigong is excluded in the English case; where the word ‘mind’ replaces the Chinese concept of Heart. The cultural knowledge that is embedded in the abstract concept of ‘Heart adjustment’ has apparently not been understood in the West, which means that the above techniques and functions have not been specified. Conse-quently, there has been no objective basis for an evaluation of the quality of Qigong practice.

    From the sport science perspective, the dissertation concludes that the lack of a unified standard with which to assess the quality of Qigong prac-tice in the scientific field thus affects the research quality and data com-parability of Qigong studies. Therefore, the establishment of a methodol-ogy that measures the quality of the practice is absolutely vital.

    List of papers
    1. The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The meaning of the Chinese cultural keyword xin
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Languages and Culture, ISSN 2141-6540, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 75-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In China, the word, xin 心  (often translated as ‘heart’) is frequently used and its concept is central to Chinese culture. However, its meaning is not exactly the same as ‘heart’ in English. Using qigong as the context, this article aims to explore the meaning of xin as a cultural keyword in order to gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese culture and knowledge within that cultural system. Qigong is a Chinese health maintenance system and healing tradition which integrates physical activity with training of the mind and self-cultivation. One of qigong’s basic components is xin adjustment. It is impossible to convey the full meaning of this concept without understanding the meaning of xin. In Chinese culture, xin is the root of physical and mental life. It is the seat of all emotions, and embodies the inherent goodness of human nature and wisdom. Xin helps to guide the individual’s way of life and attitude, and can lead one to deep contentment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lagos, Nigeria: Academic Journals, 2013
    Keywords
    xin xin, Chinese heart, cultural keyword, natural semantic metalanguage (NSM), qigong, heart adjustment. INTRODUCTION
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Cultural Studies Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20096 (URN)
    Note

    DOI 10.5897/JLC12.054

    Available from: 2011-10-18 Created: 2011-10-18 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conceptualization of Qigong in Chinese and English scientific literature: the overlooked cultural knowledge of ‘state of unity’ and ‘Heart’
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62672 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
  • 15.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Idrottsutövandets estetik: en narrativ studie om meningsskapande och lärande2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall interest of this thesis is to explore aesthetic experience in sport and its significance for learning in sport. The main purpose is to contribute to a theoretical and methodological development of studies relating to learning in sport. The exploration is undertaken within the field of pragmatism using the works of John Dewey and Ludwig Wittgenstein. The exploration consists of four case studies, consisting mainly of narrative analyses of people’s written stories of participating in different sporting activities. A practical epistemology analysis (PEA) with a focus on aesthetic experience is used in three of the studies. The theoretical contribution comprises exploring learning in sport as something that is connected to emotions and perceptions, where other elements of experience, such as the social, cultural, historical, physical and mental aspects, are also important. Examining learning in the light of aesthetic experience contributes to an examination of emotion s and perceptions as integral parts of sport, without reducing learning to only consisting of emotions and perceptions. The results of the study also contribute to the possibility of exploring values in sport-related learning and shed light on the importance of habits (feelings of familiarity) when learning sport. How people ‘bodying’ the world aesthetically as part of their participation in sport has also been shown in one of the studies. The methodological contributions of the thesis consist of the development of PEA to include the examination of written texts. Furthermore, one of the studies includes the development of aesthetic events as a tool for exploring aesthetic experience in sport. Finally, a methodological contribution is made by using PEA to examine sport, since in the past PEA has only been used in studies in science education.

    List of papers
    1. Aesthetic experience as an aspect of embodied learning: stories from physical education student teachers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetic experience as an aspect of embodied learning: stories from physical education student teachers
    2009 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 265-279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore aesthetic experience as an aspect of embodied learning with focus on the moving body. Our theoretical framework is mainly based on the work of John Dewey. In the first part of the article we identify our understanding of central concepts and draw some lines to their implication for physical education (PE). In the second part we then use the theoretical framework in an empirical study inspired by the tradition of pragmatism. The aim is to study how physical education student teachers (PETE students) feel when participating in ball game, and how their feelings are related to the moving activity. Empirical data were mainly generated through observations from two ball game lessons and stories written by 16 PETE students. All stories were subjected to a categorical analysis of content. After analysing the empirical material, four categories emerged built on two pair of words: familiar or unfamiliar, and pleased or displeased. In the discussing section of this article, we put forward that moving activities in PE often are regarded as being technical or instrumental. By using an aesthetic perspective on embodied learning, however, we can go beyond that impression and show other dimensions of participation in ball game. It may become an important shift from exploring performance only to studying learning connected to feelings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2009
    Keywords
    Bodily learning; Embodied learning; Aesthetic experience; Physical education; Teacher education; Stories
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-8778 (URN)10.1080/13573320903037622 (DOI)000267668100001 ()2-s2.0-70349884336 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2009-12-15 Created: 2009-12-15 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Skating in a life context: examining the significance of aesthetic experience in sport using practical epistemology analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skating in a life context: examining the significance of aesthetic experience in sport using practical epistemology analysis
    2011 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 613-628Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to suggest and illustrate a methodological approach for studies of learning in physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy in order to investigate and clarify the relation between how people learn and the settings or context in which they learn. Drawing on the work of John Dewey, the later works of Ludwig Wittgenstein and socio-cultural approaches, a practical epistemology analysis (PEA) with a focus on aesthetic judgements is suggested as a way of developing a valuable approach for investigating situated learning. The approach is illustrated by an analysis of a biographical story written by the English author Jenny Diski. As can be seen from the illustration, the significance of aesthetic experience for learning is visible when an author tells us about skating as a child. By using PEA to examine aesthetic experience-operationalised through the aesthetic judgements the author includes in the story-we can shed light on the relation between the skater and the situation in which skating takes place. The fact that aesthetic judgements are used by the author normatively to decide what is to be included and excluded in skating, and also that aesthetic judgements are used to make relations between the skater and her life as a whole, facilitates an exploration of the relation between the sports learner and the life situation in which learning is situated.

    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-18799 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2011.601141 (DOI)000294206900004 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    3. The competent athlete: making sense of performance and masculinity in physical education teacher education
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The competent athlete: making sense of performance and masculinity in physical education teacher education
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Didactics
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21289 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. The act of running: a practical epistemology analysis of aesthetic experience in sport
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The act of running: a practical epistemology analysis of aesthetic experience in sport
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Didactics
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21290 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 16.
    Mijwel, Sara
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The effect of resistance training on molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle protein breakdown in healthy old men2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Oskarsson, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Lateral epicondylitis: intramuscular blood flow, pressure and metabolism in the ECRB muscle2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral epicondylitis is classified as an overuse injury and the main symptom is pain from the lateral side of the elbow. There is general agreement that the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle and its proximal tendon play a central role in the development of lateral epicondylitis. However, the pathophysiology is to a large extent unclear. The aim of the thesis was to investigate the intramuscular blood flow, the muscle metabolism as well as the vascular reactivity and the intramuscular pressure (IMP). Patients having chronic unilateral epicondylitis were investigated, with the unaffected arm serving as a control. Measurements were performed during rest, before and 3 and 12 months after an injection of botulinum toxin type A to cause relaxation of the muscle as well as after muscle contraction and occlusion of blood flow.

    Initial intramuscular blood flow in the affected ECRB was lower compared with the unaffected muscle and anaerobic metabolism was recorded. The dif­ference in intramuscular blood flow between the affected and the unaffected arm was reduced after injection of botulinum toxin type A and muscle metabolism was aerobic. Perceived pain (VAS-score) was reduced and functional daily activity was improved, evaluated using the instrument Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COMP) and the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument (DASH). Vascular reactivity during recovery after muscle contraction tended to be faster on the unaffected side than on the affected side. No difference in the post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia response between the affected and the unaffected ECRB was observed. The intramuscular pressure tended to be elevated in affected muscle.

    In conclusion, decreased microcirculation and an anaerobic metabolism in ECRB may contribute to the symptoms in chronic lateral epicondylitis, which has not previously been showed. The impaired blood flow in the affected arm does not seem to be caused by impaired vascular reactivity but may partly be due to an elevated IMP probably due to an increased tension in the affected ECRB.

    List of papers
    1. Decreased intramuscular blood flow in patients with lateral epicondylitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased intramuscular blood flow in patients with lateral epicondylitis
    2007 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 211-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate intramuscular microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, mean duration of symptoms of 39 (12-96) months participated. The diagnosis was based on clinical examination and none was under treatment for the last 6 months. Isometric handgrip strength, 2-pinch grip strength and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension was determined. Functional perceived pain was evaluated by a modified BRS and perceived pain during contraction by VAS. Intramuscular and skin blood flow was recorded by a laser-Doppler flowmetry system technique (LDF) during stable temperature condition.

    Intramuscular blood flow was significantly lower in the affected side, 22.7 ± 9.8 PU as compared to 35.2 ± 11.9 PU in the control side (P = 0.01). There was no difference in skin blood flow or temperature between affected and control side. A positive correlation was found between duration of symptoms and the difference in intramuscular blood flow between affected and control arm (r = 0.65, P = 0.06).

    The present data indicate that decreased microcirculation and anaerobic metabolism in ECRB may contribute to the lateral epicondylitis symptoms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell Munksgaard, 2007
    Keywords
    microcirculation, skeletal muscle, laser Doppler flowmetry, lateral epicondylitis
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4036 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2006.00567.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-09-21 Created: 2007-09-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Improved intramuscular blood flow and normalized metabolism in lateral epicondylitis after botulinum toxin treatment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved intramuscular blood flow and normalized metabolism in lateral epicondylitis after botulinum toxin treatment
    2009 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of elbow pain, and decreased microcirculation in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) has recently been suggested to contribute to the symptoms. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the treatment response after injection of botulinum toxin type A. Ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis and decreased intramuscular blood flow in ECRB participated. Handgrip, 2-pinch grip and muscle strength during radial deviation and dorsal extension of the wrist were recorded. Perceived pain during contraction was evaluated with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and function in daily activities was assessed using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand instrument (DASH) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure instrument (COPM). Intramuscular blood flow was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, and microdialysis was used to analyze muscle metabolism. The difference in intramuscular blood flow between the control and the affected side had decreased 3 and 12 months after treatment (P=0.03). Lactate concentration at the 12-month follow-up had decreased (P=0.02); perceived pain was reduced and function in daily activities had improved. Injection of botulinum toxin is an alternative treatment for epicondylitis. Symptom relief may be due to enhanced microcirculation causing an aerobic metabolism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2009
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Medicine; Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-4607 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00804.x (DOI)000266431300004 ()18435689 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-66249083500 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2008-09-23 Created: 2008-09-23 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Microvascular response in the ECRB muscle of patients with lateral epicondylitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microvascular response in the ECRB muscle of patients with lateral epicondylitis
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The microvascular response in extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) muscle was studied in thirteen patients with unilateral epicondylitis. At rest the intramuscular blood flow was significantly lower in the affected arm than in the unaffected (P = 0.006). During dorsal extension for 1 min at 40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 2 min at 20% MVC, blood flow increased significantly in both arms (P = 0.02). Microcirculation remained above resting level both 1 and 2 min after contraction at 40% MVC but was back to the precontraction level 2 min after contraction at 20 % MVC. The reactive hyperaemic response after occlusion of the brachial artery for 5 min, showed no significant difference between the arms. The reason for the hampered microcirculation in ECRB at rest does not seem to be due to a decreased ability of the vessel wall to dilate. Other plausible reasons merits further investigation.

    Keywords
    tennis elbow, laser Doppler flowmetry, muscle perfusion, static contraction, muscle force, post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia
    National Category
    Physiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10889 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Intramuscular pressure in the ECRB muscle of patients with lateral epicondylitis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intramuscular pressure in the ECRB muscle of patients with lateral epicondylitis
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    An increased tension and a low intramuscular blood flow in the extensor carpi radialis (ECRB) muscle in patient with lateral epichondylitis has been suggested to contribute to the symptoms. The reason for the lower blood flow may be increased intramuscular pressure. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine intramuscular pressure and blood flow in affected and unaffected ECRB in ten patients with unilateral epicondylitis, with a mean duration of symptoms of 24 (13-48) months. Intramuscular pressure (IMP) was measured using the microcapillary infusion technique and intramuscular blood flow using the laser Doppler flowmetry technique, bilaterally with the non-affected arm serving as a control. The recordings were performed at rest, during isometric dorsal extension of the wrist for 1 min at 40 % and 2 min at 20 % of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and during recovery after contractions. At rest the median IMP was 7-8 mm Hg regardless of arm while the median intramuscular blood flow was lower on the affected side compared with the unaffected side (P=0.03). During contraction the IMP and blood flow increased regardless of arm. The IMP fell to pre-contraction level within 2 s after contraction, independent of arm and contraction force. Recovery, regarding the intramuscular blood flow, tended to be faster on the unaffected side than on the affected after contraction at 20 % MVC. After contraction at 40 % MVC the blood flow was equal on both sides. When the IMP value in the unaffected muscle was corrected for the higher force elicited compared to affected muscle the adjusted IMP was significantly lower (P=0.006) at 20 % MVC. In summary, affected ECRB has a lower intramuscular blood flow during rest and a higher intramuscular pressure in relation to the unaffected muscle at contraction for 2 min at 20 % MVC.

    Keywords
    Tennis elbow, intramuscular pressure, muscle perfusion, laser Doppler flowmetry, static contraction
    National Category
    Physiology
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-10891 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-02 Created: 2010-06-02 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 18.
    Qamar, Muhammad Mustafa
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Long-term strength training reverses the effects of aging on skeletal muscle of health elderly men.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

     Aging is related to a gradual decline in skeletal muscle mass, which is associated with morphological modifications such as reduced muscle fiber cross-sectional area and satellite cell content. Data also suggest that a short-term strength training period can be an effective instrument to rejuvenate these morphological parameters and to restore muscle mass. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of one year progressive strength training on fiber type-specific morphological parameters (fiber type composition, fiber area, satellite cell content, myonuclear number and domain) in skeletal muscle of elderly men.

     

    Methods: Thirteen healthy elderly men (age range, 66-77 years) were randomly assigned into training (T) (n=7) and control (C) (n=6) groups. 52 weeks of progressive strength training was performed. Before and after the training, muscles biopsies were collected from the middle part of the vastus lateralis by percutaneous needle biopsy technique. Muscle biopsies were examined for muscle fiber type composition, fiber type-specific hypertrophy and alterations in satellite cell content, myonuclear content and domain using immuno-histochemistry.

     

    Results: At baseline, myonuclear content and mean fiber area was larger in type I fibers compared to type II fibers (p<0.05). No statistically significant differences were found in fiber type composition, mean fiber area, satellite cell content and myonuclear domain between T and C groups at baseline. By the end of the training period, fiber area was increased by 59% (p<0.05) in type I and 71% (p<0.05) in type II. Satellite cell content, myonuclear content and myonuclear domain were increased after training in type I by 58% (p<0.05), 33% (p<0.05), and 20% (p<0.05), respectively. Similar increases in satellite cell content (+65%; p <0.05), myonuclear content (+36%; p <0.05) and myonuclear domain (+25%; p<0.05) were seen in type II fibers.

    Conclusion: The current study reported that long-term strength training is an excellent tool to prevent sarcopenia. It is demonstrated that skeletal muscle in elderly is capable to enhance satellite cell and myonuclear content, which contributed to muscle hypertrophy. 

  • 19.
    Seger, Izabela
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Betygsättningsprocess i ämnetidrott och hälsa: en studie om betygsättningsdilemman påhögstadiet2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how assessment processes in secondary school Physical Education and Health (PEH) are manifested in PEH teachers’ concrete grading based on the new Swedish curriculum from 2011. Three major questions are formulated: Which difficulties and possibilities do PEH teachers experience during assessment based on the new curriculum? How do they motivate their grades? Which dilemmas do they describe in connection with their grading? The curriculum theories by Bernstein and Swedish theorist Linde were chosen as theoretical framework. Furthermore, a hermeneutic perspective was applied in order to interpret and analyse the results from video recorded interviews. The results show that the new curriculum and syllabus are described as more structured and more interconnected than the previous ones. The new grading scale, the explicit syllabus and the fact that teachers have to offer a wider spectrum of activities are described as strengths. Grades are meticulously documented since this is a way to justify the grades both for the pupils and their parents. Almost all participating teachers in the study use matrices to document their assessments. Theoretical knowledge has gradually become more important in PEH, for example Health is mainly assessed based on theoretical assignments. However, the constant assessment has become so comprehensive that the PEH teachers fear that the joy of being active will decline. The difficulties experienced in relation to the new curriculum are, to a large extent, focused on the new grading scale and the description of what is required to obtain a certain grade. Teachers are hesitant as to the meaning of expressions like “to a certain degree”, “relatively well” and “well”. They feel insecure in their assessment, for example how to handle the proportions between different capabilities. It is obvious that further in-service training is necessary in order to obtain more equivalent grades. The requirements for each step of the grading scale must be clarified.

  • 20.
    Stigell, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Assessment of active commuting behaviour: walking and bicycling in Greater Stockholm2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Walking and bicycling to work, active commuting, can contribute to sustainable mobility and provide regular health-enhancing physical activity for individuals. Our knowledge of active commuting behaviours in general and in different mode and gender groups in particular is limited. Moreover, the validity and reproducibility of the methods to measure the key variables of the behaviours are uncertain. The aims of this thesis is to explore gender and mode choice differences in commuting behaviours in terms of distance, duration, velocity and trip frequency, of a group of adult commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, and furthermore to develop a criterion method for distance measurements and to assess the validity of four other distance measurement methods. We used one sample of active commuters recruited by advertisements, n = 1872, and one street-recruited sample, n = 140. Participants received a questionnaire and a map to draw their commuting route on. The main findings of the thesis were, firstly, that the map-based method could function as a criterion method for active commuting distance measurements and, secondly, that four assessed distance measurement methods – straight-line distance, GIS, GPS and self-report – differed significantly from the criterion method. Therefore, we recommend the use of correction factors to compensate for the systematic over- and underestimations. We also found three distinctly different modality groups in both men and women with different behaviours in commuting distance, duration and trip frequency. These groups were commuters who exclusively walk or bicycle the whole way to work, and dual mode commuters who switch between walking and cycling. These mode groups accrued different amounts of activity time for commuting. Through active commuting per se, the median pedestrian and dual mode commuters met or were close to the recommended physical activity level of 150 minutes per week during most months of the year, whereas the single mode cyclists did so only during the summer half of the year.

    List of papers
    1. A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A criterion method for measuring route distance in physically active commuting
    2009 (English)In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 472-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    There is a need for accurate, reliable, and feasible methods for determining route distances in physically active transportation. The aim of this study, therefore, was to scrutinize if distances of commuting routes drawn by physically active commuters and measured with a digital curvimetric distance measurement device could serve such a purpose.

    Methods:

    Participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in the inner urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually adjusted maps were sent twice to the participants (n = 133). Commuting routes from home to work were drawn on the maps. These were measured using a digital curvimetric distance measurer that was carefully controlled for validity and reproducibility. Marked points of origin and destination were checked for validity and reproducibility using stated addresses and address geocoding systems. Nineteen participants were followed with a global positioning system (GPS) to control for validity of drawn routes. An analysis of the effect on distance measurements of any deviations between GPS route tracings and drawn routes was undertaken.

    Results:

    No order effects were noted on distance measurements, and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.999 (P ≤ 0.001). The map markings of route origins and destinations were accurate and reproducible. GPS tracings of actual commuting routes taken (n = 19) as displayed in six cases had slight deviations from the routes drawn by the commuters on maps. However, these deviations played an insubstantial role (0.4%) for the distances measured.

    Conclusion:

    When physically active commuters draw their commuting routes on maps, they create a valid and reproducible basis for route distance measurements. In combination with an accurate digital curvimetric distance-measuring device, a potential criterion method for measuring the commuting route distance is established.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009
    Keywords
    validity, reproducibility, walking, bicycling, curvimeter, gps
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16508 (URN)10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181877aaf (DOI)000262601200027 ()19151593 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-65449167530 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Erik Stigell is also affiliated with Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment

    Available from: 2011-08-11 Created: 2011-08-11 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Methods for determining route distances in active commuting: their validity and reproducibility
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods for determining route distances in active commuting: their validity and reproducibility
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 563-574Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Distance is a variable of pivotal importance in transport studies. Therefore, after checking the validity of a potential criterion method for measuring active commuting route distances, this method was used to assess the validity and reproducibility of four methods of approximating the commuting route distances covered by pedestrians and bicyclists. The methods assessed were: self-estimated distance, straight-line distance, GIS shortest-route distance, and GPS-measured distance. For this purpose, participants were recruited when walking or bicycling in Stockholm, Sweden. Questionnaires and individually-adjusted maps were sent twice to 133 participants. The distances of map-drawn commuting routes functioned as criterion distances. The participants were also asked to estimate their distances. The straight-line distance between origin and destination was measured using map-drawn routes. The shortest route between home addresses and workplace addresses was calculated with three GIS algorithms. Eighty-six trips were measured with GPS. The main results were that test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) exceeded 0.99 for all methods, except for self-estimated distance (ICC = 0.76). No ordereffects existed between test and retest. Significant differences were, however, noted between criterion distance and self-estimated distance (114 ± 63%), straight-line distance (79.1 ± 10.5%), GIS shortest route (112 ± 18 to 121 ± 22%) and GPS distance (105 ± 4%). We conclude that commonly-used distance estimation methods produce systematic errors of differing magnitudes when used in a context of active commuting in suburban and urban environments. These errors can at average level be corrected for, whereas individual relative errors will remain.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    walking, cycling, commuting, distance, validity, reproducibility
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16510 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2010.06.006 (DOI)000292427700010 ()2-s2.0-79957455375 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Erik Stigell is also affiliated with Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment

    Available from: 2011-08-11 Created: 2011-08-11 Last updated: 2018-09-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Active commuting behaviours in a metropolitan setting: distance, duration, velocity and frequency in relation to mode choice and gender
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active commuting behaviours in a metropolitan setting: distance, duration, velocity and frequency in relation to mode choice and gender
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Knowledge concerning active commuting behaviours is meagre. Therefore, we have previously developed a criterion method for measuring commuting distance. Here we study the reliability of selfreported duration, red-light stops, velocity and weekly trip frequency per month over the year. We also assess all these variables in men and women, walking or cycling the whole way from home to work or school in a metropolitan setting.

    Methods

    Test-retest reproducibility was studied in a street-recruited sample of adult commuters in Greater Stockholm, Sweden (n = 70). Another group of adult commuters was recruited via advertisements in two newspapers (n = 1872). They all received a questionnaire and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route.

    Results

    The reproducibility of the different variables varied from moderate to almost perfect. Three different modality groups were identified in both men and women. The median durations of single mode commutes varied between 25 and 30 minutes. Single mode pedestrians had a high weekly trip frequency over the year, 7 to 8 trips, and a median distance of 2.3 km. The median single mode bicyclist did not cycle during the winter, but had a high weekly trip frequency, 6 to 9 trips, during the summer period, with a distance of 9 km for men and 6.7 for women. The distances of dual mode commuters, who alternately walk and cycle, were about 2.8 km. Their weekly cycle trip frequency mimicked the single mode cyclists‘. Primarily during the winter they substituted cycling with walking. Through the active commuting per se, the median single mode pedestrians and dual mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of 150 minutes per week most of the year, whereas the single mode cyclists did so only during the summer half of the year. Some gender differences were observed in distances and velocities.

    Conclusions

    Distinctly different types of active commuting behaviours exist in a metropolitan setting and depend on mode choice and gender. Future studies on active transport are recommended to assess both walking and cycling over the whole year.

    Keywords
    walking, bicycling, commuting, distance, duration, velocity, frequency, seasonality
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Research subject
    Sports Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-16404 (URN)
    Note

    The article is submitted to International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISSN 1479-5868) Erik Stigell is also affiliated with Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment

    Available from: 2011-07-27 Created: 2011-07-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 21.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Skeletal Muscle Mass & Function in Older Women: Health-Enhancing Influences of Combined Resistance Exercise & Diet2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength which may lead to impaired ability to perform activities of daily living in older adults. Although the exact cause of the gradual decline in muscle mass is unknown, identifying efficient strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and strength is important in order to promote healthy ageing. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore the effects of resistance training alone or combined with a healthy diet on skeletal muscle mass and function of healthy recreationally active older women and to determine mechanisms by which elevated systemic inflammation may contribute to the age-related decline of muscle mass in older adults. The combination of resistance training and a healthy diet induced gains in leg lean mass as well as greater gains in dynamic explosive force than resistance training alone in healthy recreationally active older women. The observed gains in leg lean mass were accompanied by increases in the size of type IIA muscle fibres together with down-regulation in gene expression of a pro-inflammatory factor (IL-1β) and upregulation in gene expression of a regulator of cellular growth (mTOR) in skeletal muscle of older women. Additionally, reduced muscle protein synthesis and size of muscle cells may mediate the detrimental effects of elevated circulating markers of inflammation on muscle mass in older adults. In conclusion, the present thesis depicts mechanistic links between elevated systemic marker of inflammation and muscle mass and provides new information on the effects of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass and strength in a group of healthy recreationally active older women. This knowledge is instrumental for development of strategies aiming to prevent age-related loss of muscle mass and function.

    List of papers
    1. Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of combined resistance training and healthy diet on muscle mass in healthy elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 119, no 8, p. 918-925Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The delivery of efficient nonpharmacological treatment to prevent the loss of muscle mass in older adults is a major challenge, and information on the combined effects of training and diet is particularly important. Here we aimed to evaluate the effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy dietary approach (n-6/n-3 ratio < 2) in a population of healthy and physically active older women (65-70 years). The three-armed randomized controlled trial included a resistance training + healthy diet group (RT-HD), a resistance training group (RT), and controls (CON). All subjects included in the study were physically active and had low levels of serum inflammatory markers. In accordance with the dietary goals, the n-6/n-3 ratio dietary intake significantly decreased only in RT-HD by 42%. An increase in 1 repetition maximum in leg extension occurred in RT (+20.4%) and RT-HD (+20.8%), but not in CON. Interestingly, leg lean mass significantly increased only in RT-HD (+1.8%). While there were no changes in serum C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels, a significant decrease in serum level of the pro-inflammatory precursor arachidonic acid (-5.3 +/- 9.4%) together with an increase in serum n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (+8.3%) occurred only in RT-HD. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the effects of resistance training on muscle mass in healthy older adults can be optimized by the adoption of a healthy diet.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2015
    Keywords
    aging, C-reactive protein, exercise, fatty acids, inflammation, skeletal muscle
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiology
    Research subject
    Physiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-46442 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00066.2015 (DOI)000362959800009 ()26338453 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946046698 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agency:

    Swedish National Center for Research in Sports P2012/0102 P2014-0117

    Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lower limb explosive strength capacity in elderly women: effects of resistance training and healthy diet
    2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 190-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of 24 wk of resistance training combined with a healthy diet on lower limb explosive strength capacity were investigated in a population of healthy elderly women. Participants (n = 63; 67.5 ± 0.4 yr) were randomized into three groups; resistance training (RT), resistance training and healthy diet (RT-HD), and control (CON). Progressive resistance training was performed at a load of 75-85% one-repetition maximum. A major adjustment in the healthy dietary approach was an n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio below 2. Lower limb maximal strength, explosive force capacity during dynamic and isometric movements, whole body lean mass, and physical function were assessed. Whole body lean mass significantly increased by 1.5 ± 0.5% in RT-HD only. Isometric strength performance during knee extension as well as the performance in the five sit-to-stand and single-leg-stance tests increased similarly in RT and RT-HD. Improvements in dynamic peak power and time to reach peak power (i.e shorter time) during knee extension occurred in both RT (+15.7 ± 2.6 and -11.0 ± 3.8%, respectively) and RT-HD (+24.6 ± 2.6 and -20.3 ± 2.7%, respectively); however, changes were significantly larger in RT-HD. Similarly, changes in peak force and rate of force development during squat jump were higher in RT-HD (+58.5 ± 8.4 and +185.4 ± 32.9%, respectively) compared with RT (+35.7 ± 6.9 and +105.4 ± 22.4%, respectively). In conclusion, a healthy diet rich in n-3 PUFA can optimize the effects of resistance training on dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women.

    NEW & NOTEWORTHY Age-related decline in lower limb explosive strength leads to impaired ability to perform daily living tasks. The present randomized controlled trial demonstrates that a healthy diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) enhances resistance training-induced gains in dynamic explosive strength capacity during isolated lower limb movements and multijoint exercises in healthy elderly women. This supports the use of strategies combining resistance training and dietary changes to mitigate the decline in explosive strength capacity in older adults.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Physiological Society, 2017
    Keywords
    aging, muscle mass, omega-3 fatty acids, physical function, rate of force development
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-60897 (URN)10.1152/japplphysiol.00924.2016 (DOI)000462721300001 ()28473614 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85045202499 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-09-19 Created: 2017-09-19 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved
    3. Mechanisms mediating skeletal muscle hypertrophy in older women following resistanceexercise combined to healthy diet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms mediating skeletal muscle hypertrophy in older women following resistanceexercise combined to healthy diet
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    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-62773 (URN)
    Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2017-11-23Bibliographically approved
    4. Mechanistic Links Underlying the Impact of C-Reactive Protein on Muscle Mass in Elderly
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic Links Underlying the Impact of C-Reactive Protein on Muscle Mass in Elderly
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    2017 (English)