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  • 1.
    Beime, Kristina S.
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Den avvikande anställda: En studie av den disciplinära processens misslyckande2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to the darker side of organizational control. How individuals, viewed by their superiors as dysfunctional or deviant, are dealt with once the everyday disciplinary standard operating procedures and social mechanisms are consider to fall short. My two research questions, how the deviant employee is constructed by management and how management handle the deviant employee, are closely related to how the threshold of deviance is defined, explicitly or implicitly, in formal organizations.

    Central in my work is the concept of ostracism, a process where an individual is both physically removed/banished, made redundant, isolated or relocated and socially defined as deviant, said to be disloyal, uncooperative or lazy. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault I conceptualize this as the last step in the organizations disciplinary process, a point where the aim of normalization is replaced by a process of exclusion, to safeguard the organization.

    In the analysis I identify different types of deviations and how managers construct deviance in relation to different logics. The individual can be regarded as a misfit in relation to a rational economic, a bureaucratic, a collegial social and finally a socio-cultural logic of action. The individual is classified as deviant in relation to one of these frames and the manager’s attempts to normalize the individual accordingly, something that also determine if and how the individual is excluded from the organization.

    The wider implications of the study is that in order to understand disciplinary regimes in working life, the processes of labelling deviance and managing exclusion must be understood.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Cecilia
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Enabling and Coercive Control: Coexistence in the Case of Banking2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on subjects of control and attitudinal outcomes of formalized control in organizations. Previous research have concluded contradicting results of whether formalized control is positive or negative for the employees and propose that not only degree of formalization, but also type of formalization, can explain attitudinal outcomes.

    With the theoretical perspective of Adler and Borys’ concepts of enabling and coercive types of control, this thesis explore the concepts and practices of enabling and coercive control, and their relationships with attitudinal outcomes. This is done with a focus on the banking industry, which serve as a case of an extensively regulated context. An assumption put forth in this thesis is that the context in which individuals are part must be considered in the study of attitudinal outcomes of control.

    The analysis show that both enabling and coercive control can be found in banking, for example in business plans and regulations. However, the picture emerging is more complex than enabling control leading to positive attitudes, and coercive control leading to negative attitudes. Also, coexistence of enabling and coercive control is responded to with decoupling and acquiescence, and by drawing on global transparency.

    Based on these findings, together with theoretical elaborations, this thesis contribute to the literature of enabling and coercive control in a number of ways. First, it make explicit central concepts and relationships within the theory, such as design vs. perception, the role of zone of indifference as an outcome of control, and enabling and coercive control as dual roles or qual-ities of control. Moreover, this thesis suggests that multiple-level explanations to attitudinal outcomes of control, where contextual and institutional structures are considered, helps us understand attitudes to control in this context. Lastly, this thesis contribute to the notion of coexistence of enabling and coercive control by showing that coexistence can be simultaneous systems, and simultaneous cognitions, where a control can be perceived as both enabling and coercive at the same time.

  • 3.
    Gunnarsson, Claes
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    Value creation and loyalty in exchange relationships: a dynamic perspective2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This marketing dissertation focuses on the troublesome aspects of value creation in dynamic business relations including in relation to internal and external customers. The research field points out that relationship-mediated value creation emerges in various forms of organizational arrangements, inter-organizational settings, service systems and networks.

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyze how loyalty and value creation shortfalls influence business relationship dynamics. It is claimed that shortfalls in value creation reflect a discrepancy between anticipated or present performance compared with business partners’ expectations.

    In this dissertation, a dynamic perspective is applied to substantiate how critical episodes influence the continuity of relationships taking a progressive or regressive course of development. The study focuses on shortfalls in value creation and indicates troublesome aspects in term of the dimensions of customer satisfaction, trust and commitment. Accordingly, it directs attention towards the heterogeneous influence of business relationship dynamics which is caused by loyalty antecedents in specific episodes of value creation shortfalls.

    The main contribution of this dissertation is a portrayal of 11 different episodes of shortfalls in value creation, which indicates the stabilizing role of loyalty antecedents in different dynamic business relations.

    In essence, the findings specify that perceived or anticipated shortfalls in value creation imply an increased awareness among managers to account for loyalty antecedents in dynamic relationships. First, shortfalls in value creation are related to discrepancies between value proposition and value change. Second, stability can be achieved by substitution between trust and commitment (i.e. formalization) when there is a lack of value realization or value capture. Third, the formation of managerial commitment in goal congruence is crucial for stability when shortfalls relate to contingencies in the managerial system of control and coordination. The conclusions in this dissertation signify how loyalty antecedents may not be sequentially connected or activated along the relationship development process. In addition, these loyalty antecedents are occasionally inherently inconsistent in continuous and dynamic relationships.

    This dissertation consists of an extended summary and seven research papers. The applied method is characterized by both multiple and single case study approaches. Furthermore, the qualitative and multidimensional approach used is pertinent to the discussion of value creation and loyalty in contrast to employing a single theory framework.

    List of papers
    1. Marketing capabilities in expanding and non-expanding Swedish SMEs: an exploratory case study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marketing capabilities in expanding and non-expanding Swedish SMEs: an exploratory case study
    1998 (English)In: Marketing behaviour and capabilities in some Swedish SMEs: expanders as opposed to non-expanders / [ed] Claes Hultman, Claes Gunnarsson, Frans Prenkert, Örebro: Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research , 1998, p. 79-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Örebro: Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research, 1998
    Series
    FSF, ISSN 1404-2762 ; 1998:1
    National Category
    Social Sciences Economics and Business Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15365 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    2. An empirical case study of the role of learning through customer relationships as an element in the absorptive capacity of two rapidly expanding SME suppliers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An empirical case study of the role of learning through customer relationships as an element in the absorptive capacity of two rapidly expanding SME suppliers
    1999 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the dynamics in SMEgrowth, where growth is conceptualized as a process of knowledge accumulation within anetwork context and emphasizing evolving strategies of exploration and exploitation indeveloping customer relationships. In this context, the paper elaborates the concept of 'absorptivecapacity', based on an empirical case study of two rapidly expanding SME suppliers. The studyemphasizes the relationship between the explorative contextual expansion of networks and theexploitation of new knowledge as a way of developing and refining the content of specificcustomer relationships. It is concluded that the characteristics of absorptive capacity differsbetween focused SMEs in the way of developing few significant customer relationships ascompared to more broad and multi-contextual companies that strives to develop many exchangerelationships and new final-applications.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15366 (URN)
    Conference
    15th Nordic Conference on Business Studies, 19–21 Aug, 1999, Helsinki, Finland
    Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    3. The stabilizing role of Internet technology in business partnerships: a cross-case study of integration shifts between small- and medium-sized enterprises and demanding industrial partners
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The stabilizing role of Internet technology in business partnerships: a cross-case study of integration shifts between small- and medium-sized enterprises and demanding industrial partners
    2002 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses the use of Internet technology in the relationship between SMEs and demanding industrial partners. Four case studies are reported by a cross-case analysis based on three dimensions of stability derived from the work of Thompson; Predictability, Efficiency, and Interaction. Results indicate the occurrence of two types of shifts spurred by the use of Internet technology, between actors in the task environment, and between their activities. In turn, these shifts represent a change in the identity of the SME in question towards the demanding partner.

    Keywords
    SME, Business Partnerships, Internet Technology, Stability, Identity
    National Category
    Social Sciences Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15367 (URN)
    Conference
    47th World Conference of the International Council for Small Business (ICSB), June 16-19, 2002, San Juan, Puerto Rico
    Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Charge the relationships and gain loyalty effects: turning the supply link alert to IT opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charge the relationships and gain loyalty effects: turning the supply link alert to IT opportunities
    2003 (English)In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 144, no 2, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze interconnected effects related to the use of IT, and in so doing, provide an understanding of integrative logistics operations in a supply chain link. We take a theoretical point of departure in the three factors of relationship investments, formalization and trust. Thereafter we will expand and elaborate these factors by discussing embedded elements and mechanisms, related to relationships and loyalty, which result in an outlined model for empirical research focused on operational and strategic partnerships. Based on an empirical analysis we propose that the use of IT, expressed as digitization, can be seen as a driving force for bridging a gap between the actual and potential pattern of integrative logistics operations in a supply chain link. Digitization activates mechanisms in trust, commitment, and solidarity, which are related to loyalty and simultaneously enable heterogeneous influences in relationship characteristics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    Supply chain management, Integrative logistics operations, IT, Loyalty, Relationship
    National Category
    Social Sciences Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15371 (URN)10.1016/S0377-2217(02)00392-2 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Internet technology to achieve supply chain performance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internet technology to achieve supply chain performance
    2005 (English)In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 403-417Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore how the internet introduces opportunities for customer value and effectiveness when developing integrative logistics operations between alliance partners in a supply chain link.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on the expressed interest from the researched companies how to take advantage of the internet in building competitive business processes in the supply chain. The quest for external customer-value creation becomes a critical managerial task in strengthening the strategic position of the supply chain. The study seeks to integrate the use of theories of marketing, strategic sourcing, core competencies, and transaction costs, in a supply chain perspective.

    Findings – Applying the internet with solely a focus on cost reduction could lead to high supply chain effectiveness without realizing potential customer value-perception opportunities. Also, assuring strategic consistency when leaning on cooperation is a critical supply management subject. Finally, the internet is a driving force in managing alliances.

    Research limitations/implications – The framework of the value-delivery system and the concept of value shortfalls, as theoretical understanding and managerial implications, deserve to be taken into certain consideration in future studies of supply chain performance.

    Practical implications – The managerial implications point out three potential routes in the internet use: as a strategic collaborative posture to compete with superior external customer-value delivery; in increasing supply chain efficiency and gradually shifting attention toward customer-perceived value; in extracting economic value through continual refinements of current logistics operations.

    Originality/value – A systemic value-delivery view where the value-exchange process is illustrated with delivery performance, actual achievement, and value shortfall.

    Keywords
    Delivery services, Distribution management, Integration, Internet, Supply chain management
    National Category
    Social Sciences Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15372 (URN)10.1108/14637150510609426 (DOI)
    Available from: 2011-04-26 Created: 2011-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    6. The impact of shared resources on service efficiency discontent: a management paradox in process orientated service systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of shared resources on service efficiency discontent: a management paradox in process orientated service systems
    2007 (English)In: Proceedings of EBRF 2007, 2007, p. 1-15Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, it is argued that the management illusion of achieving service system efficiency spawns a process efficiency paradox. This paradox is exposed when top-management employ indiscriminate actions of increasing the resource utilization-ratio by the sharing of resources among various service processes irrespective of considering criteria’s of swift and even flow. This can be administrative convenient but amplify process variation and therefore be contra-productive in terms of achieving service process efficiency. The intersection of the hierarchical resource control and the process management of service system illuminate divergent views on service efficiency. Following this line of reasoning, a qualitative case study elaborates the notion of four types of efficiency shortfalls which may be related to the dialectics between the hierarchical approach of increased resource sharing, viewed from a top-management perspective, and the process orientation of the service system. Considering the impact of shared resources on service efficiency discontent, this approach can bridge the gap between the actual and potential efficiency in the process oriented service system.

    Keywords
    Service efficiency, process orientation, efficiency shortfalls, shared resources
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6194 (URN)
    Conference
    EBRF, Research Forum to Understand Business in Knowledge Society, Sep. 27–28, Jyväskylä, Finland
    Available from: 2009-04-01 Created: 2009-04-01 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
    7. Public value creation in intrapreneurial ventures 
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public value creation in intrapreneurial ventures 
    2008 (English)In:  , 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-11804 (URN)
    Conference
    5th International Conference on Accounting, Auditing and Management in Public Sector Reforms, 3 - 5 September 2008, Amsterdam
    Available from: 2010-09-13 Created: 2010-09-13 Last updated: 2019-04-05Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Hansson, Magnus
    Örebro University, Swedish Business School at Örebro University.
    On closedowns: towards a pattern of explanations to the closedown effect2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Productivity effects under uncertainty and threat is the topic of this thesis. It comprises a synthesis and four papers on closedown – focusing a phenomenon where there is an overall productivity increase during the closedown process. Productivity effects are the primary focus of this work’s case closedown studies, and uncertainty and threat the common denominator of the cases. This thesis contributes a theoretical foundation for analysis of closedowns. It identifies explanatory contributing factors and patterns which enable a better understanding of the Closedown effect.

    The theoretical foundation for this thesis is outlined in the first paper. It recontextualizes the Hawthorne experiments by applying a closedown perspective to them. This new perspective identifies several similarities between the Hawthorne experiments and situations where closedown is threatened or decided. Originally the Hawthorne experiments were viewed as a closed system, laboratory experiments instead of actions on daily operations. The new perspective analyzed the prevalent threat implicit in the context that the Hawthorne experiments were conducted in. Such threat was identified in other earlier work on the Horndal and Closedown effect, situations where productivity also increased. Threat can act as a motivator or de-motivator. With the recontextualized perspective, it was found that employees become sensitive to their managerial and informational context, and so productivity patterns fluctuate. A productivity increase is observed overall when closedown is threatened. It is this phenomenon we term the Closedown effect.

    In the second paper, a case study of the closure of a plant tracks productivity fluctuations and fine-tunes analysis of critical events that occur during a closedown process. It builds on the previous papers theoretical foundations and outlines a theoretical model for explaining the Closedown effect. Productivity development depends on workers’ interpretations of management information, and actions and reactions to the prevalent closedown. The dialectics between management and workers change during the closedown period – there were fewer conflicts, speeder conflict resolution, increased formal and informal worker autonomy, and more workers’ work design initiatives. A HRM-program initially had a positive effect on workers, but its importance diminished during the closedown period. The closedown decision generated structural changes: management control over daily operations diminished, informal leadership evolved and individualization grew stronger as the importance of informal groups deteriorated.

    In the third paper a multiple case-study is presented. Lack of social responsibility characterizes the managerial setting in these cases, in contrast to the case study presented in the second paper. That is, here there was a lack of management support for worker activities in this particular closedown process. The Closedown effect was found to be statistically significant in three of the four cases. This paper also contributes a theoretical elaboration of the Closedown effect, including distinguishing the key aspects needed in a detailed analysis of the closedown process.

    In the fourth paper the productivity paradox is examined with a holistic approach, which draws on Buckley’s (1967) modern systems theory. This holistic perspective considers changes in the initial economic and institutional structure, and assesses the dynamics that are triggered by the closedown decision. A closedown decision evidently reorders the equilibrium between management and the workers. The main holistic pattern that emerges is a new order, where worker self management replaces management control at plant level and workplace psychology is based on the apprehension of unfairness.

    An empirically-close analysis approach is a recognized method for highlighting puzzling phenomenon and developing explanatory patterns. This empirically-close analysis of the empirical data generated in this thesis enabled identification of key factors to explain the appearance of the Closedown effect. Moreover, it was a means for generating a more rigorous theoretical understanding of the Closedown effect, and developing a pattern of explanations to this productivity increase effect.

    A key theoretical contribution of this thesis is the identification of a range of concepts that form antecedent explanations to the Closedown effect’s occurrence. These antecedents are aggregated in themes: managerial actions, counter-institutional actions, conflict context, worker autonomy, perceived threat of job loss, collective action, economic and institutional reordering, and institutional restrictions. The following describes the influence of these aggregates and their temporal dynamics, in relationship to the Closedown effect.

    The identification above factors and the generation of a theoretical framework to assess closedowns is the contribution this thesis makes. The significance of these for future research is also critically assessed.

    List of papers
    1. Recontextualizing the Hawthorne effect
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recontextualizing the Hawthorne effect
    2006 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 120-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the thesis that a threat to the vital interests of an entity, be it a single individual or a group, will lead to productivity increases in a variety of forms. We argue that because threat was present in the Hawthorne experiments, the adoption of a decline perspective is relevant to a recontextualization of the Hawthorne effect. This means introducing aspects of an open systems approach into the analysis. A comparison between the Hawthorne effect and the Closedown and Horndal effects reveals certain analytical similarities. In view of this, and because the threat factor is present in the Hawthorne experiments, we recommend that threat be taken into account as one component of the Hawthorne effect

    Keywords
    Closedown effect, Hawthorne effect, Horndal effect, Productivity, Threat, Decline
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2926 (URN)10.1016/j.scaman.2005.12.003 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-05 Created: 2008-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    2. When the lights go out
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>When the lights go out
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2929 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-05 Created: 2008-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    3. Pyrrhic victories: anticipating the closedown effect 
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pyrrhic victories: anticipating the closedown effect 
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Human Resource Management, ISSN 0958-5192, E-ISSN 1466-4399, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 938-958Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies with empirical evidence on social responsible driven closedowns have identified a productivity increase effect that occurs during the process of organizational closedowns, known as the closedown effect. Our proposition is that this effect can be anticipated as a consequence of a closedown decision. Encountering four different non social responsible closedown cases, of various durations, we statistically test this proposition. Further, we identify a need for an analytical distinction of the phases of the closedown process, in terms of the primary 'advanced notice period' and the secondary 'countdown period'. Based on the analysis, and with this distinction, we are able to conclude that the productivity increase effect can be anticipated during the countdown period. The comparably longer time frame in the Studding case provides the strongest support for our proposition. From the analysis we suggest hypotheses for further research.

    Keywords
    Decline; closedown; closedown effect; productivity; social responsibility
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2927 (URN)10.1080/09585190600641255 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-03-05 Created: 2008-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
    4. A holistic approach to the productivity paradox
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A holistic approach to the productivity paradox
    2007 (English)In: Human Systems Management, ISSN 0167-2533, E-ISSN 1875-8703, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Both the public and private sectors have since the 1980s relentlessly cut the size of their workforces. The downsizing has regularly been reported to lead to closure of a whole or a part of a corporation or organization. Some studies which have analyzed the closures have reported that remarkable, counterintuitive improvements in labor productivity occurred during the time-period between the closure announcement and the final working day. Testing an elaborated cybernetic model on a Swedish case study, and on an exploratory basis, this paper proposes a holistic approach to generate a better understanding of this phenomenon. The main holistic pattern is a new order where management control is replaced by more “Self-management” on the plant level, and very strong psychological reactions based on feelings of unfairness.

    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-2928 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-03-05 Created: 2008-03-05 Last updated: 2019-03-26Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics.
    Developing collaborative customer-supplier relationships through value co-creation2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to create understanding of the value co-creating process in business relationships, where the dyadic relationship is in focus and both the customer’s and the supplier’s view of the value co-creating process is of interest. In the introductory chapter, it is assumed that the ultimate goal of business logic is to create value, and value co-creation can be regarded as the essential reason why a customer and a supplier engage in a business relationship. Value is created for both the customer and the supplier, but co-created value does not necessarily have to be shared between the interacting parties. In this thesis, the customer’s and the supplier’s intentions for engaging in a value co-creating process are investigated as well as how the value co-created is perceived by the interacting parties.

     

    Theories about exchanges and interactions create the theoretical foundation of the interpretation of relationships and the interplay between organisations in this thesis. By gathering input from the value literature, the conceptual framework is further elaborated and a conceptual model of the value co-creating process is presented.  A case study has been carried out to obtain an in-depth picture of the value co-creating process in customer-supplier relationships. During the autumn of 2000, the customer, the Technical Office in Zeta Municipality, invited subcontractors to a public purchasing process regarding maintenance of the water and sewage system. “Subcontracting” of municipal activities was relatively uncommon at the time. The supplier, Alpha, had experience of maintaining hydropower plants but the firm had no practical knowledge of maintenance of water and sewage systems. Thus, the situation was new for both parties when they engaged in a value co-creating process in January 2001.

     

    The investigated relationship between the Technical Office and Alpha shows that both parties’ intentions for engaging in a value co-creating process can be interpreted as expected value and desired value, where the expected value can be understood as the counterparty’s minimal expectations and the desired value as the features adding value to the counterparty. The Technical Office and Alpha had different intentions for engaging in a value co-creating process. Furthermore, the investigated relationship illustrates that the Technical Office and Alpha perceived the value co-created as expected value, desired value, unanticipated value and received value. Both partners had expectations and desires regarding the relationship, both parties provided unanticipated value to the relationship and both partners received value from the relationship. In this study, expected value, desired value, unanticipated value and received value are given empirical content. The investigated case also shows that most of the value co-created was not shared between the interacting partners and that perceived value changes depending on situation, but also over time. Moreover, the relationship between the Technical Office and Alpha shows that value co-creation can be viewed as a process through which collaboration is achieved.

     

  • 6.
    Hasche, Nina
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Value co-creating processes in international business relationships: three empirical studies of cooperation between Chinese customers  and Swedish suppliers2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on value co-creating processes in international business relationships, where customers and suppliers have different frames of reference that create a distance, often expressed in terms of uncertainty between the customer and the supplier. This tension between developing cooperative business relationships in order to co-create value versus handling uncertainty, misunderstandings and conflicts based on perceived distance, makes an interesting arena for exploring how the value co creating process is formed in international business relationships.

    In this thesis, a customer-supplier perspective is used. The thesis rests on reasoning and concepts discussed in the field of marketing, where literature on value co-creation forms the theoretical foundation of the thesis. Three case studies of co-operation between Chinese customers and Swedish suppliers operating in the Chinese automotive industry have been carried out so as to obtain an in depth picture of the value co-creating processes in international business relationships.

    The main contribution of the thesis is a nuanced phraseology which should prove fruitful when discussing value co-creating processes in international business relationships. The notion of value co creation in interactive processes is further developed by discussing value through a business relationship and value in a business relationship, where value co-creation includes both individual value for customers and suppliers respectively and common value for both parties to share. The concepts of conversation, coordination, collaboration and co-generation capture the process of cocreating value between international customers and suppliers with different frames of reference. The concepts constituting the phraseology can be seen as generally applicable, but the content of the different concepts discussed varies between business actors, across cultures and over time. By discussing the temporal dimension of past, present and future in this thesis, the developed phraseology infer the notion of continuity instead of short term interaction episodes often discussed in other types of valueco-creation frameworks.

  • 7.
    Hatakka, Mathias
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The capability approach in ict4d research2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    List of papers
    1. Build it and they will come?: Inhibiting factors for reuse of open content in developing countries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Build it and they will come?: Inhibiting factors for reuse of open content in developing countries
    2009 (English)In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, ISSN 1681-4835, E-ISSN 1681-4835, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Open content has the potential to change the playing field when it comes to every individual’s right to education. Development of new course content is both expensive and time consuming and open content can help educational organizations to deal with these problems by offering free-to-use educational resources. Despite the benefits of open content the usage is very low in developing countries and understanding why content developers choose not to use open content is the first step towards finding a solution to the problem. Which inhibiting factors for reuse do content developers in developing countries experience with open content? To answer the question interviews, questionnaires and observations have been made with content developers from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and from UNESCO Open Training Platform. Findings show that many of the inhibiting factors with reuse of open content do not necessarily relate to the actual content. Educational rules and regulations, lack of infrastructure, teaching practices and traditions etc. are major obstacles that need to be overcome if the usage of open content should increase.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong, 2009
    Keywords
    Open Content, Open Educational Resources, eLearning, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Open Training Platform
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6299 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-20 Created: 2009-04-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Development, capabilities and technology: an evaluative framework
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development, capabilities and technology: an evaluative framework
    2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries: Partners  for  Development  -­  ICT  Actors  and  Actions, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a framework to be used for evaluation of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) projects. The framework is based on Sen´s notion of development as freedom where human capabilities and functionings are seen as key aspects to development. Sen´s capability approach presents an alternative way of seeing and evaluating development (alternative to more traditional ways of measuring development). The approach is based on expanding freedoms, or eliminating unfreedoms, for people so that they can live a life that they have reason to value. Even though Sen is referenced a lot in ICT4D literature the analysis rarely goes further then stating that Sen presents an alternative to traditional ways of development. Reasons can be that the capability approach does not specifically mention technology, in addition to the lack of guidelines presented by Sen on how to use the framework. The aim of this paper is to operationalize the evaluation process and to include a clear role for technology in Sen´s capability framework. The framework is validated with a case on distance education from Bangladesh. 

    Keywords
    ICT4D, capability approach, evaluation, framework, education
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21419 (URN)
    Conference
    IFIP WG9.4: 11th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries
    Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
    3. The capability approach as a tool for development evaluation: analyzing students' use of internet resources
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The capability approach as a tool for development evaluation: analyzing students' use of internet resources
    2012 (English)In: Information Technology for Development, ISSN 0268-1102, E-ISSN 1554-0170, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internet resources have been ascribed transformative powers in the development of educational organizations and students in developing regions. However, most development projects relating to Internet resources focus on publishing material without much analysis of the actual use. The question then is how we can go deeper in our analysis and study actual development outcomes. The analysis in this paper is based on Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach where both the means and ends are evaluated. The research question is “What are the benefits of using Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach when evaluating development outcomes?”. We answer the question by evaluating what capabilities and functionings Internet resources can enable for students in higher education. Findings show that the Capability Approach enables us to gain a deeper understanding of why and how development outcomes are achieved. We are also able to follow the development process from the intervention to the realized outcomes. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2012
    Keywords
    Internet resources, education, the Capability Approach, Amartya Sen, human development
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21420 (URN)10.1080/02681102.2011.617722 (DOI)000299345500003 ()2-s2.0-84856090905 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Students’ use of one to one laptops: a capability approach analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students’ use of one to one laptops: a capability approach analysis
    2013 (English)In: Information Technology and People, ISSN 0959-3845, E-ISSN 1758-5813, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 94-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - We evaluate effects of students’ 1:1 laptop use from a capability perspective by investigating increases and decreases of students’ opportunities and choices. We investigate changes that have taken place and how these changes enable or restrict students to do and be what they desire.

    Design/methodology/approach – We undertake an interpretive case study based on group interviews and questionnaires. Sen’s capability approach is used as theoretical framework and has informed the data collection and the analysis.

    Findings – 1:1 laptops in schools have provided students with new opportunities and choices, but also restricted others. An evident opportunity is the equalization of access to computers. Other opportunities relate to schoolwork efficiency and increased access to information. Gains also include the use of different media for overcoming disabilities or to fit individual learning styles. Regarding students’ well-being, a “fun” learning environment is mentioned. However, the “fun” is often about playing games or using social media – something which diverts the students’ attention from the learning. Students also find that they are less social, too computer dependent, and that they miss using pen and paper. Additionally, health issues such as back problems and headaches are reported, as well as an increased risk of being robbed.

    Originality/value – Most research on 1:1 laptops in education focuses on easily quantifiable measures and reports from a teacher perspective. We take a broader approach and investigate the impact 1:1 laptops have on students’ well-being and agency. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013
    Keywords
    1:1 laptops, ICT supported learning, education, the capability approach
    National Category
    Information Systems, Social aspects
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-26929 (URN)10.1108/09593841311307169 (DOI)000318378300005 ()2-s2.0-84874811370 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    UnosUno
    Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    5. Back to basics: Why (some) ICT4D projects still struggle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Back to basics: Why (some) ICT4D projects still struggle
    2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 12th International conference on social implications of computers in developing countries, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Keywords
    Success and failure, ICT4D, education, the capability approach, conversion factors
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-29299 (URN)
    Conference
    12th International conference on social implications of computers in developing countries (IFIP WG 9.4), May 19-22, 2013, Ocho Rios, Jamaica
    Available from: 2013-06-03 Created: 2013-06-03 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    6. Capability outcomes from educational and ICT capability inputs: an analysis of ICT use in informal education in Kenya
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capability outcomes from educational and ICT capability inputs: an analysis of ICT use in informal education in Kenya
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) ICT use in education is well studied. Education is often seen as a pre-­‐requisite for development and ICTs are believed to aid in education, e.g. to make it more accessible and to increase its quality. In this paper we study the access and use of ICT in a study circle (SC) education program in the south coast of Kenya. The study is qualitative reporting results based on interviews and observations with SC participants, government officers and SC coordinators and teachers. The study builds on the capability approach perspective of development where individuals’ opportunities and ability to live a life that they value are focused. The aim of the study is to investigate the capability outcomes enabled through the capability inputs access and use of ICT in education as well as the factors that enabled and/or restricted the outcomes. Findings show that many opportunities have been enabled such as an increase in the ability to generate an income, learning benefits, community development and basic human development (e.g. literacy and self-­‐confidence). However, conversion factors such as a poorly developed infrastructure and poor IT literacy prevent many of the individuals from taking full advantage of the ICT and the opportunities it enables.

    Keywords
    ICT supported education, education, study circle, the capability approach, ICT4D, ICT access, ICT training
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-32004 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-10-14 Created: 2013-10-14 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Kask, Johan
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    On business relationships as Darwinian systems: an exploration into how Darwinian systems thinking can supportbusiness relationship research2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demarcation between different traditions in contemporary research on business relationships reflects theoretical and methodological difficulties in the conceptualization of the nature of business relationships and how such relationships evolve. To tackle these problems, this thesis explores the fruitfulness of regarding business relationships as Darwinian systems, which accentuates kinship between Darwinism and systems thinking, and elaborates a treatment of business relationship transmutation as an iterative dynamic process that does not take the existence of business relationships – or the sequence of developmental stages – for granted.

    The thesis draws on findings in four essays as well as a stand-alone extended summary. These five parts complete the thesis. The discussion advances the idea that the tenets of systems thinking and of Generalized Darwinism are aligned and can provide a novel explanatory paradigm, although it takes marketing rigor to specify an emergent framework that conceptualizes the nature and evolution of business relationships. The concluding part elaborates the steps required for a more comprehensive Darwinian system theory of business relationships.

    A main contribution of the thesis is the exploration of an emergent theoretical composite – new to marketing – that integrates systems thinking, Generalized Darwinism and established business relationship conjectures. The thesis asserts the importance of configurational fit; the interaction between variation-creation and selective preservation to form a full Darwinian story; and the meaning of a logical distinction between manifested characteristics and the underlying instructions directing the former. Furthermore, the firm–relationship–market system hierarchy outlined highlights the business relationship as an emergent organizational form at a level above that of the individual firm, stressing the importance of its dual nature and as an evolving system alike, thus endorsing research to tackle the central theoretical and methodological difficulties of business relationships’ nature and evolution.

    List of papers
    1. On the promise and premises of a Darwinian theory in research on business relationships
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the promise and premises of a Darwinian theory in research on business relationships
    2013 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 306-315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ‘Darwinism’ and generalizations of Darwin's idea outside the domain of its traditional biological application are advancing. In the field of industrial marketing, this has appeared mostly in the form of an interest in using biological analogies or isolated parts of a fuller Darwinian theory when theorizing about business relationships. In this article, we combine the general advancements of Darwinism in social science with the recent Darwinian-inspired theorizing on business relationships. The article reviews business relationship studies within marketing that explicitly uses Darwinism and results in the identification of six gaps and directions for future research. The most significant implication of the review is that investigations into the evolution of business relationships should account not only for the mechanism of selection but also for the mechanisms of variation and retention, in order to take proper account of the Darwinian explanatory paradigm. By suggesting ‘generalized Darwinism’ as an overriding framework, we argue that it is time to go from merely flirting with some Darwinian ideas to explicitly exploring the promise of using the Darwinianexplanans in research on business relationships. We put forward suggestions on how central Darwinian mechanisms could be warranted and conceptualized in a theory explaining the evolution of business relationships.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Darwinism, Scientific explanations, Evolution, Generalized Darwinism, Business relationships
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28674 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.02.006 (DOI)000320298500005 ()2-s2.0-84877811428 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2013-04-12 Created: 2013-04-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Business mating in stable and turbulent markets: does the configuration fit?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business mating in stable and turbulent markets: does the configuration fit?
    2011 (English)In: 2011 Global Business Conference: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Goran Vlašić, Jurica Pavičić, Zoran Wittine, Zagreb: Innovation Institute , 2011, p. 237-Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We theorize that invention-centric novel firms (ICNF) have the greatest chance to mate with an incumbent business partner when their invention fit with leadership style and the state of the market situation. Two different configurations are proposed both leading to high chance for ICNFs to succeed in business mating: When there is no current dominant design in the market, ICNFs will be more thriving in business mating if they have entrepreneurial leadership and a radical invention. Conversely, where there is a current dominant design present ICNFs are most prosperous in business mating if leadership is conservative and the invention incremental. These two equifinal ways to business mating express the value of holistically investigating configurations including both firm-specific and market-specific conditions rather than study one condition at a time. This claim advances us past the market versus firm debate and elaborates a theory whence greater understanding of business mating is possible.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Zagreb: Innovation Institute, 2011
    Keywords
    Business Mating, Configurations, Invention, Leadership Style, Dominant Design
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28727 (URN)
    Conference
    Global Business Conference 2011, Sibenik, Croatia, September 21-24, 2011
    Note

    Best Paper Award

    Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Asymmetrically realized absorptive capacity and relationship durability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymmetrically realized absorptive capacity and relationship durability
    2012 (English)In: Management Decision, ISSN 0025-1747, E-ISSN 1758-6070, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Absorbing knowledge from partner firms is a key feature of marketing relationships. Recent publications have called for more dynamic and cognitive approaches in marketing relationship research. Also, established definitions of absorptive capacities have been questioned. This article aims to address propositions that take these overlooked and questioned elements into consideration, which can help explain conducts and dependencies, and affect relationship durability.

    Design/methodology/approach: The authors put forward four propositions by combining literature on interfirm relationships and managerial cognition with evolutionary ideas from marketing and management literature.

    Findings: The authors embrace a redefinition of potential absorptive capacity (the disposed capacity to absorb knowledge) and realized absorptive capacity (the absorption of knowledge actually performed). This distinction can, to some extent, be explained by the degree of cognitive attention given to the marketing relationship. Moreover, asymmetrically realized absorptive capacityvis-à-vis a partner substantially influences the dynamics of partners' conduct and dependency, which may vary the risk that the relationship will end.

    Practical implications: The propositions illustrate how a motivated partner that gives more attention to the relationship is more likely to absorb more knowledge than its counterpart, which can threaten the durability of a relationship. Thus, managers need to be able to understand possible long-term consequences of the partner's conduct in order to avoid losses of joint strategic resources and relational benefits.

    Originality/value: By advocating an evolutionary approach, an impetus for more dynamism in marketing relationship research is presented. This study also shows the importance of including the longitudinal dimension in analysis if one wants to understand change in – and durability of – marketing relationships.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012
    Keywords
    Customer relationship management; Knowledge management; Partners
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-15889 (URN)10.1108/00251741211194868 (DOI)000303029000004 ()2-s2.0-84856194874 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2011-06-13 Created: 2011-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Evolving Market Channels in the Swedish Music Industry: A Dominant design approach
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolving Market Channels in the Swedish Music Industry: A Dominant design approach
    2011 (English)In: Studies in industrial renewal: coping with changing contexts / [ed] Esbjörn Segelod, Karin Berglund, Erik Bjurström, Erik Dahlquist, Lars Hallén and Ulf Johansson, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2011, p. 95-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2011
    Keywords
    Market Channels, Dominant Design, Evolution, Music Industry, Renewal
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-28725 (URN)978-91-7485-038-3 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2013-04-17 Created: 2013-04-17 Last updated: 2018-03-01Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Klinton, Markus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Det rationella och det normala: om lönearbetets logik, praktik och etik2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis concerns the tense situation of the pregnant employee in Sweden. Drawing on the critical ontology of Michel Foucault the situation is characterized as a specific problematization within a historical theme around procreation (as an eventuality). The purpose of the thesis is to explain the functioning of the current situation of the pregnant employee as an inherent conflict, but also to draw out the implications of this specific analysis in relation to general wage labor. First an objective analysis is out-lined on how free wage labor gradually develops into a) a rational way of “knowing” about wo/man, b) a normal (institutional) way of organizing this knowledge, and c) a normalized subject position for the expectant individual. Second the investigation turns towards the subjective experience of this positioning. This analysis, drawing on the works of Iris Marion Young and Erving Goffman, focus on a) the conflicts logic b) its practical management and c) the situations’ ethical implications. The empirical material for the second part consists of legal cases, diaries and discussion-threads from the Internet. The conclusions drawn suggest that the pregnant employee is a rather abstract problem but that this abstraction still is real enough to make her disqualified from the calculus regime of employment. The second conclusion states that the pregnant employee becomes temporarily “closeted” and engaged in practices of concealment and tension management. Finally the ethics of this situation is analyzed, stating that the pregnant employee becomes positioned in a situation of structural shame which she has to relate to no matter her specific employment conditions. In the end the wider implications of the analysis is drawn out, stating that wage labor has developed into a biased categorization of individuals as proper or non-proper labor power. Rational discrimination has been normalized, just as the handling of oneself as more or less deviant from norms. 

  • 10.
    Lagin, Madelen
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    The Price We Pay: The Autonomy of Store Managers in Making Price Decisions: The Case of Grocery Retailing2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, the store manager’s autonomy in making price decisions is explored to further our understanding of this actor. As a result, the store manager’s embeddedness in the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad provides a more holistic view of the price decisions made in grocery retailing. In both the scientific literature and the grey literature, discussions of whom it is who actually makes the price decisions within grocery retailing are diverse and point to all three actors in the triad, including the store manager.

    Through a theoretical departure in which price decisions and autonomy is discussed, it is possible to explore the store manager’s ability to make price decisions in relation to the manufacturer-retailer-consumer triad. As an embedded actor in the triad, the store managers can, theoretically andspeculatively, face restrictions in relation to all actors.

    The context in which this dissertation is placed is that of the grocery retail branch in Sweden, where the three largest retail organisations have participated in the dissertation. This dissertation consists of the cover paper and five appended papers, where autonomy is discussed from a qualitative perspective within the frame of a mixed method approach. By looking at price decisions from the store manager’s perspective, and his/her freedom in making price decisions, the dissertation contributes to the area of micro-foundations of pricing.

    It is concluded that while store managers might not be formally autonomous in making price decisions, and that connected restrictions, due to the relationship and position of the actors in the original triad are in place, the store managers have enough freedom in relation to the store to implicitly and operationally influence price decisions. As a result, it is concluded that the possibility to resist decisions by acting as if they are autonomous, store managers become important actors to be taken into account when price decisions are made and evaluated.

    List of papers
    1. Understanding the link between price strategy and price tactic: an analytical model on retailers’ decisions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the link between price strategy and price tactic: an analytical model on retailers’ decisions
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69157 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    2. How does the use of in-store discount coupons affect retail revenues?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How does the use of in-store discount coupons affect retail revenues?
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69158 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    3. Quantity Rebates Using Coupons: A Retailers Perspective
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantity Rebates Using Coupons: A Retailers Perspective
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69159 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    4. Psychological price-setting techniques: An experiment on odd to even prices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological price-setting techniques: An experiment on odd to even prices
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69160 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
    5. Retail price decisions from the perspective of the store manager
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Retail price decisions from the perspective of the store manager
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-69161 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
  • 11.
    Linton, Gabriel
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Entrepreneurial orientation: reflections from a contingency perspective2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship has been argued to be a key driver of the economy by creating jobs, turning inventions to innovations, and also improving the overall standard of life. A firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO) indicates the degree to which a firm is entrepreneurial. However, there are several different approaches to conceptualizing the EO concept and its sub-dimensions, frequently described as innovativeness, risk taking, and proactiveness. The role of the sub-dimensions is not quite clear in the EO literature. Furthermore, many studies claim that firms can increase their performance simply by increasing their EO, while this thesis draws upon contingency theory to argue that EO needs to be aligned with—‘fit’ the internal and external context, if the firm is to perform well. Thus, this thesis aims to advance the conceptualization of EO by problematizing the core construct and also discussing how EO can fit with context. The thesis consists of four papers in which the EO concept is elaborated on and contingency theory is applied to construct conceptual models of the interaction between EO and different contexts, which are also empirically investigated. Furthermore, the sub-dimensions of EO are discussed in terms of their meanings and measurement to point out their individual impact on the EO.

    The overall findings indicate that EO is not as simple a concept as often portrayed in the EO literature. Rather, EO is more complex in the ways that it can fit with internal and external context and, on these bases, it is suggested that ideal types of EO and context is a way forward for research in the area. Additionally, it is argued that EO as a theoretical construct may not only be conceptualized as an overall entrepreneurial attribute (which is common in the extant literature), but also as a complex and granular attribute.

    List of papers
    1. Contingency fit(s) in entrepreneurship research: uses and usability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contingency fit(s) in entrepreneurship research: uses and usability
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47902 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Entrepreneurial orientation from a process and outcome view: Investigating innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in a startup context
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurial orientation from a process and outcome view: Investigating innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in a startup context
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47903 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Configurations of entrepreneurial orientation and competitive strategy for high performance
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-47904 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-02-27 Created: 2016-02-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Business mating: when start-ups get it right
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business mating: when start-ups get it right
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 511-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of forming business relationships is critical for the prosperity of startups; still, few studies have examined how conditions inside and around the start-uptogether lead to business mating – occurrence of a new business relationship. Toclarify the importance of proper fit among management style and invention featuresfor high mating chances, this paper tackles this need by taking a configurationalapproach. We use qualitative comparison analysis (QCA) to analyze case studies from16 invention-based start-ups seeking marketing partners. Findings indicate differentsolutions leading to high chances of forming business relationships. This studycontributes with a typology to the business relationship and start-up literature, as wellas discusses future directions to the emerging sub-domain of business mating research.

    Keywords
    business mating; business relationships; start-ups; configurations; QCA; invention; entrepreneurship; markets; entrepreneurial orientation; relationship formation
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34344 (URN)10.1080/08276331.2013.876765 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-03-17 Created: 2014-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Lodefalk, Magnus
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Tackling barriers to firm trade: liberalisation, migration and servification2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses how to tackle barriers to firm trade and the consequences thereof. In Essay 1, we carefully model trade liberalisation scenarios that include the key elements of the WTO Doha round, scenarios that are implemented in a computable general equilibrium model. The simulation results indicate particularly strong gains for developing countries from liberalisation. A conservative estimate is that global income increases by approximately 0.2-0.7 per cent of initial GDP, depending on the degree of liberalisation, with trade facilitation contributing the most to these results. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries’ own liberalisation for national income gains and of a broad-based round of trade negotiations. In Essay 2, we analyse the mechanisms through which immigrant employees help firms overcome informal barriers to trade, based on a heterogeneous- firm trade model. By exploiting a rich employer-employee panel for Sweden, we show that immigrants’ skills and length-of-stay strongly influence their impact on firm trade. The link is also stronger for smaller firms and for differentiated goods, but similar across product margins of trade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immigrant employees facilitate firm trade by lowering information frictions and infusing trust into business relationships through knowledge of foreign markets and access to networks. Essay 3 is concerned with structural changes in the Swedish economy with respect to services in manufacturing. Despite suggestive evidence, large gaps remain in our knowledge about the process of servicification, a process whereby manufacturing focuses increasingly on services. We therefore analyse these changes in manufacturing in depth. The results show that manufacturing has been servicifying substantially. In Essay 4, the role of services for manufacturing firm exports is analysed The microeconometric results suggest that service inputs affect a firm’s export capabilities. Overall, Essay 4 provides new firm-level evidence for the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

    List of papers
    1. What is at Stake in the Doha Round?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is at Stake in the Doha Round?
    2007 (English)In: The World Economy, ISSN 0378-5920, E-ISSN 1467-9701, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1305-1325Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the key elements of the WTO Doha Round are simulated and the main implications for international trade and national income are analysed. Based on negotiation information, three scenarios are designed. All scenarios encompass goods, services and agricultural liberalisation as well as trade facilitation. For goods liberalisation, a so-called Swiss formula is used to cut bound tariff rates. Agricultural tariffs are cut according to a tiered linear formula. Attention has been given to the modelling of trade facilitation. Indirect as well as direct trade transaction costs are modelled. For simulation of the services liberalisation quantitative estimates of indirect trade barriers are used. The simulation results show that all regions in the aggregation gain in the simulated Doha scenarios, with a particularly strong result for developing countries. A conservative estimate is that global income increases with 0.2–0.7 per cent of initial GDP, depending on the level of liberalisation. Trade facilitation contributes the most to these results, with increased market access for non-agricultural goods coming in second place. Overall, simulations indicate the importance of countries' own liberalisation for their national income gains, and the importance of a broad-based round.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2007
    Keywords
    Doha round; trade liberalisation; CGE; trade facilitation; services; WTO
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-6034 (URN)10.1111/j.1467-9701.2007.01045.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-18 Created: 2009-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    2. Investigating the link between immigrant employeesand firm trade
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the link between immigrant employeesand firm trade
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    a heterogeneous firm trade model. By exploiting a rich employer–employee panel for Sweden, we show that immigrants’ skills and lengths of stay strongly influence the association with firm trade. The link is stronger for smaller firms and for differentiated goods but similar across detailed product margins of trade. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that.immigrants facilitate trade by lowering information friction and by infusing trust into business. 

    Keywords
    trade, migration, firm-level analysis, trade costs, networks, information, trust
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Research subject
    Business Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-30110 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-08-02 Created: 2013-08-02 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    3. Servicification of manufacturing: evidence from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Servicification of manufacturing: evidence from Sweden
    2013 (English)In: International Journal of Economics and Business Research, ISSN 1756-9850, E-ISSN 1756-9869, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 87-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    There are signs that manufacturing is becoming increasingly focused on services; this process is known as servicification. Despite suggestive evidence, large gaps remain in our knowledge regarding this process. This paper contributes to closing these gaps by discussing the phenomenon, arriving at some conjectures and examining them empirically. Comprehensive datasets at both the firm and enterprise group level are developed for Sweden. Changes in manufacturing during the period from 1997 to 2006 are analysed in depth. The results show that manufacturing has been servicifying substantially. On the input side, services and qualified services are increasingly characteristic of in-house activity. On the output side, manufacturing has been accounting for an increasing share of services in total sales and exports. Moreover, we show that diversification is much greater (almost 60% higher) when all activities in the manufacturing industry’s constituent enterprise groups are considered. The results imply that the practice of treating services and manufacturing separately – e.g., in trade policymaking – may be out-of-date. Finally, the findings illustrate the value of enterprise group-level data when studying structural economic changes.

    Keywords
    manufacturing servicification, services, firm level, enterprise group level, outsourcing, deindustrialisation, Sweden, manufacturing industry, enterprise groups, structural economic changes
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25503 (URN)10.1504/IJEBR.2013.054855 (DOI)
    Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    4. The role of services for manufacturing firms' exports
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of services for manufacturing firms' exports
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing firms have been increasingly focusing on services, a trend that is evident in their composition of input, in-house production and total sales. The services intensity of firms may affect their productivity and thereby their competitiveness abroad; services are also instrumental in connecting firms to foreign markets and can help them to differentiate their offerings from those of other firms. However, the relation between services and manufacturing exports has only been partially analysed in the previous literature. This study contributes to the field by discussing the role of services for firms and empirically testing a set of related conjectures. Export intensity is regressed on two services parameters, applying a fractional model to a rich panel of firms in Sweden in the period 2001-2007. The microeconometric results suggest that, after controlling for covariates and heterogeneity, service inputs affect a firms’ export capabilities: raising the proportion of services in in-house production yields higher export intensity on average. Furthermore, buying-in more services is associated with higher export intensity for firms in some industries. Overall, the study provides new firm-level evidence of the role of services as inputs in manufacturing.

    Keywords
    firm, export intensity, manufacturing, services, intangibles, innovation
    National Category
    Economics
    Research subject
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-25500 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-08-29 Created: 2012-08-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
  • 13.
    Seger, Karin
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Institutional Logics and Accounting Professionals: The case of K2 and K32018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting firms have long been considered a ‘black box’ in the literature, but over the last two decades or so, a growing body of literature has emerged which points to how the accounting profession may be seen as a profession in transformation, one in which the underlying logic of their work has gone from emphasizing professional values to one in which commercial values constitute the main rules of the game.

    This thesis draws upon and add to this literature as it directs attention to how co-existing and potentially conflicting institutional logics enable and constrain accounting professionals, in practice and over time. To allow this, I have conducted a qualitative and processual study of the process of converting the existing financial accounting practices for small limited companies in Sweden through new standards - K2 and K3. The scientific purpose has been to generate a micro-oriented and processual modelling of how accounting professionals influence and shape accounting practices in small limited companies, and to identify and theorize on the type of institutional logics underlying their work. My empirical findings show that the professionals influence and shape accounting practices by proposing and proclaiming suitable solutions, and by pre-packaging and marketing these as definite solutions. They also show that the construction of such solutions involves long and complex processes, during which the professionals interpret and judge different alternatives before marketing them to their clients. And from the institutional logics perspective, they show that the process may be understood as one in which the professionals mainly try to live up to professional rather than commercial expectations.

    Based on these findings, a number of contributions to the literature are identified, relating to how accounting professionals are enabled and constrained by the professional logic, how the effects of logics are highly non-deterministic, and how a single logic may generate tensions within itself even though it is predominant and not in conflict with other logics.

  • 14.
    Wennblom, Gabriella
    Örebro University, Örebro University School of Business.
    Mapping management accounting and trust: an extended literature review2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    More than three decades ago the notion of trust was introduced into the management accounting (MA) literature, and a growing stream of empirical papers elaborating on the relation between MA controls and trust signals the importance andvitality of this research area. However, a closer look at the literature shows that while major insights have been made, there is also considerable confusion around both research models and the meanings of key concepts. Accordingly, the time seems opportune to conduct an extended and critical review of the legacies of this literature. More precisely, the aims of the study are to (i) analyze how MA and trust have been conceptualized and related to each other; (ii) identify weaknesses andknowledge gaps in the literature; and, (iii) based on these, suggest how the literature may be synthesized and developed in the future.

    In so doing, this thesis analyses 37 empirical studies focusing specifically on the association between MA and trust. Overall, two key findings emerge from the analysis. A first key finding is that the area can be characterized as fragmented. More specifically, many different terms are used to denote similar concepts, and vice versa. The literature is also characterized by different levels of analysis, and different, potentially conflicting research models. The literature is also underpinned by different theoretical perspectives, of which some have conflicting assumptions.

    The second key finding is that there are several knowledge gaps and weaknesses in th eliterature. For example, while a majority of studies shows that MA is a factor affecting trust, MA itself is oftentimes left unexplained. Also, many studies conceptualize trust from the perspective of only one party in a relationship, and the questions of how and why MA and trust (co)develops and emerges over time are largely unaddressed. Furthermore, while researchers have empirically studied both personal trust and system trust, respectively, no one has modelled how they may be interrelated.

    Based on these findings, a model is proposed which not only synthesizes the extant literature, but also indentifies new, potentially important associations between different MA and trust factors. The model—consisting of twelve propositions—also theorizes how these factors affect each other over time. The thesis concludes with a number of suggestions for how to develop this research area in the future.

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