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  • 1.
    Borgström, Eric
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skrivbedömning: om uppgifter, texter och bedömningsanvisningar i svenskämnets nationella prov2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this dissertation, and the four studies it includes, is to investigate some ways in which the concept of writing ability is rendered concrete in different national writing tests. The dissertation combines two theoretical approaches. Assessment theory serves as a framework for the approach to national tests. Tests are understood as a practice aiming at providing evidence for the inferences teachers need to draw about students’ writing ability, in order to make decisions that are part of school practice, such as giving grades. I examine the tests from the perspective of an anthropological theory of text that takes dialogism as its point of departure and views texts as culturally valued utterances. The analyses focus on the relations between writing task, students’ texts and assessment criteria, and how these can be both in alignment and in conflict with the claims on score meaning made by different test constructions.

    In the first study, four students’ texts from the national writing test in upper secondary school are closely analyzed to show how a writing task regulates students’ scope for action in their texts as regards global inner structure and perspective on content. The second study investigates how a national writing test was carried out in two classrooms in primary school, and highlights the relations between the task, students’ texts and assessment criteria. In the third study, I argue that a pursuit of reliability in writing tests becomes misguided unless it takes as its starting point the definition of writing ability the tests are made to measure. In the fourth study I examine the writing tasks of the tests in upper secondary school from 2007–2012. The analysis brings four distinct and recurrent task types to the fore, from which a reconstruction of the target domain of writing within the school subject of Swedish is made.

    Overall, the dissertation contributes to critical reflection on the understandings of writing expressed by test constructions, and points at possible further development of writing tests, given the theoretical perspective on writing that the dissertation employs.

    List of papers
    1. Att skriva prov: om normer och textstruktur i gymnasieskolans skriftliga nationella prov.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att skriva prov: om normer och textstruktur i gymnasieskolans skriftliga nationella prov.
    2010 (Swedish)In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 20, p. 132-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is the national writing tests administered in Swedish upper secondaryschools. One important role of these tests is to serve as an interpretation and concretization of thecurriculum. The aim of this article is therefore to examine the textual consequences of the testsituation. The article takes a critical stance towards the test construction. The instructions say thatwhen assessing the pupils’ writing abilities, the teacher is to judge to what extent the pupils’ textscould function in the fictitious situation and genre specified in the writing task. I argue that thepupils’ texts should be understood as actions situated in a test context. Through an analysis of linearand hierarchical global text structure in pupils’ texts, I show how the writing task regularizes whatis historically institutionalized as a good text in the test situation: namely the expository essay.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Swedish Science Press, 2010
    Keywords
    skrivande, skrivbedömning, skrivförmåga, genre, textstruktur, uppsats
    National Category
    Humanities and the Arts General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36203 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Tioåringar skriver nationellt prov
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tioåringar skriver nationellt prov
    2010 (Swedish)In: Texter om svenska med didaktisk inriktning, ISSN 1651-9132, Vol. 7, p. 25-33Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Malmö: Nationella nätverket för svenska med didaktisk inriktning, 2010
    Keywords
    skrivprov, årskurs 3, genre, skrivuppgift, bedömningsanvisningar, text, skrivinstruktion
    National Category
    Languages and Literature
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36205 (URN)
    Conference
    Sjunde nationella konferensen i Svenska med didaktisk inriktning, 18-20 november 2009, Malmö, Sweden
    Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Skrivförmåga på prov
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skrivförmåga på prov
    2012 (Swedish)In: Svensklärarföreningens årsskrift, ISSN 0349-0246, p. 209-224Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2012
    Keywords
    skrivande, prov, validitet, reliabilitet, genre, kommunikativ funktion
    National Category
    Languages and Literature
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36206 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    4. Vad räknas som belägg för skrivförmåga?: ett textkulturellt perspektiv på skrivuppgifter i den svenska gymnasieskolans nationella prov.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad räknas som belägg för skrivförmåga?: ett textkulturellt perspektiv på skrivuppgifter i den svenska gymnasieskolans nationella prov.
    2012 (Swedish)In: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines writing tasks in Swedish national tests from 2007-2012. My aim is to examine some ways in which writing ability are conveyed by the test. For this purpose I combine concepts such as construct and target domain from test theory, with a text theoretical/sociocultural approach to writing. Within this framework I examine which written mediations count as evidence of writing proficiency (i.e. that are given text value) in the test context. The writing tasks are analyzed through the dimensions of themes, text structures, and acts of writing. I also analyze the writer roles implied by these tasks. The analysis shows that the test construction brings four distinct and recurrent task types to the fore. Based on those results I reconstruct the target domains of the tests, and discuss the prerequisites of their validity, from the perspective of writing theories on the one hand, and of the established course objectives on the other.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oslo: Institutt for lingvistiske og nordiske studier, Universitetet i Oslo, 2012
    Keywords
    skrivbedömning, prov, yttrande, text, uppsats, skribentroll, validitet
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-36204 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Korpus, Einar
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Reklamiska: Guldäggsannonser 1975–20072008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of Swedish advertising, and the language in its advertisements in particular, has two main purposes. One is to investigate the language and structure of ads, and seek to explain why ads have these exist. A second purpose is to investigate the continuity and change in the language and structure of ads.

    An ad consists of a number of elements. The main verbal element is called copy. The term headline is used for the main headline of an ad. Ads almost invariably also have a logotype, and more often than not a slogan placed near this logotype. This slogan is here called a payoff. The term used in this study for something final, e. g., a whole ad, is utterance, a Bakhtinian term.

    Starting with 1975 and ending with 2007, the material holds considerable variation. Swedish ads from the late 70´s and early 80´s display both long copy and documentary photography. Proportions between ad elements change during the investigated period of time.

    Accepting the presupposition that ads have the purpose of persuading their readers, it´s likely that most or possibly all of their features are meant to play a part in that persuasion. This will include the ways in which ads speak to their readers. Part of the investigation deals with this by looking at how pronouns, questions, and urges are used. Also, humour is an internalized part of contemporary advertising. This was established before 1975 and is a common feature of the Golden Egg Awards ads.

    Discourses meet in ads, in order to make ads more trustworthy. This explains borrowing from discourses like science and journalism. There is one further main reason for ads to use traits from other discourses: intimacy. Private life has had more impact on advertising and advertising language than any other discourse.

  • 3.
    Landqvist, Mats
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Förhandlares kommunikativa kompetens2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is language use in negotiations and the communicative competence of professional negotiators. The aim of the study is to make explicit the communicative competence through analysis of language use in four areas: levels of action, topical structure, meta-communication, and coherence. Negotiation ability has been identified and studied within a theoretical framework of linguistic pragmatics, outlined by participant perspective orientated and functional pragmatics, and by a socio-pragmatic perspective on joint action. Linguistic data have been analysed as parts of an activity type, a concept concerned with the connection between language use and the overall activity of which language forms a part.

    The data consist of a role play, dealing with an interstate diplomatic issue of monetary compensation after an environmental incident. The role play was performed by five different groups, with a total of twenty participants: ten Swedish and ten Russian negotiators. Two of the role plays were performed by well-experienced negotiators, and three role plays by participants without such experience. Three main variables have been used for comparison: experience, participant nationality and the assigned position of the negotiation. The data have been analysed both with quantitative and qualitative methods.

    Results show that competence is generally indicated by the special ways professional negotiators use communicative projects, create phase structures, and organize topics in local turns-of-talk and globally in the talk. Competence is also indicated by meta-communication, which is used for constructing participant roles and authority, as well as global coherence, all of which contribute to a formal level of interactive style. The interplay of power is performed within a frame of good relations, which is maintained in interaction. Professional negotiators seem to be aware of the importance of creating a common ground in interaction. What aspects contribute to the construction of a common ground can be based on a general premise that awareness and experience combine to create the main rationale for a person to act in a correct way. The results entail a professional network practice over-arching linguistic and cultural systems, where general norms of the activity type of negotiation are combined with specific institutional norms. Negotiators’ national background has however not appeared significant.

  • 4.
    Ledin, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Annan-orientering i masskommunicerande brevtexter: en tentativ modell2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to operationalise the concept of other-orientation. Based on an explorative approach, a tentative model for analysing the marks of other-orientation is developed. The model consists of four grammatical and pragmatic categories in language: deixis, speech acts, modality, and evaluative words. The process of finding out the significant marks in each category and develop a model has been an interplay between a thorough linguistic coding, an interpretative, evaluating reading, and abductive reasoning in a step-by-step process.

    Theoretically the study is based on dialogism. From this perspective, the very fact that human nature is social indicates that other-orientation is a constituent component in every communicative act. For that reason, the challenge has not been to prove that other-orientation exists in texts, but to explore how a text is made interactive, contextual, dynamic and other-oriented by means of grammatical and pragmatic selectives such as words, phrases, and clauses.

    The data consists of eight personally addressed mass communication letters about everyday matters. Each text has its model reader in a readers’ collective. Consequently the language in the texts is construed to form a dialogue between an in-text writer and reader that share the same context, although the distance between the real writer and reader is crucial.

    One result of the study is the model as such, another the analyses in which the functions of other-orientation related to the four categories are presented. Moreover, the linguistic analyses show differences between texts and readers’ collectives. Texts aimed at large anonymous collectives generally feature a direct address singular you, a high rate of positive evaluative words, more responsive speech acts, and some more potential modality. In texts aimed at a small familiar collective, there is an "I" or a "we" addressing a collective "you". There are not as many evaluative words but more assertions without any evaluation or modality.

    When it comes to other-orientation, the categories of deixis and speech acts tend to be of greater importance compared to modality and evaluative words. It makes a difference if you address a reader with a singular or collective "you" and if you choose to interact with responsive speech acts or informative statements. These contrast ways to address a reader are of importance for the construction of genre and say a great deal about other-orientation in texts.

  • 5.
    Lind Palicki, Lena
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Normaliserade föräldrar: en undersökning av Försäkringskassans broschyrer 1974–20072010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to analyse and identify problems arising from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency’s (SSIA) perceptions of parents, as they appear in the brochures targeted at expectant or new parents between 1974 and 2007. The aim is to distinguish who are being pointed out, constructed, and normalised as parents; and to analyse the functions of the recipients and the senders respectively. The aim is to be considered in the light of the SSIA’s commitment to gender equality, a policy that promotes equal access to the insurance of parents to share the parent’s insurance more equally.

    The dissertation is based on a theoretical framework that may principally be described as a feminist discourse analysis, which, among other things, means that a constructivist approach is of central importance. In addition, an intersectional perspective is an important starting point, putting the focus on the interaction and interdependence between different social categorisations.

    In four analysing chapters, the material is being tackled from different approaches or angles. In the first chapter, a picture is drawn of the institutional and political context that sets the prerequisites of the insurance regulations as well as the way the texts have been written and may be understood. The second chapter presents an analysis, in the terms of space deixis, of whom is/are being pointed out and positioned as recipient/s by SSIA. In the third chapter, an analysis of the normalised notions of parents that are identified in the texts; and of what parents are being favoured and described as ‘normal’. In the fourth chapter, the functions of the different actors are being analysed, showing how the relationship between the SSIA and the parents is constructed from in the texts.

    The results show that, in all brochures, parenthood is strongly gender-marked and that gender equality, above all, is to be understood as a quantitatively even distribution between mothers and fathers. In today’s brochures, the agency identifies and normalises recipients who primarily are biological mothers with orderly conditions, living in nuclear families with biological children. The older brochures have a higher level of gender neutrality in their texts, where mothers and fathers are placed equally and at the same distance from the position of the sender. The newer brochures, however, represent a wider range of social categorisations, and thus present a more complex picture of parenthood. The results also show that the function of SSIA in the texts is primarily economic, and that there is no obligation for parents to share the parent’s insurance equally, despite the political resolutions that impose this task on the agency.

  • 6.
    Lindström, Emma
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Plagiat: "ett tjat för jämnan": En studie om gymnasielärares arbete och reflektioner kring plagiat2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I stort behandlar uppsatsen plagiat på gymnasiet. Tidigare forskning visar att plagiat ökat och att internet gjort det enklare för elever att fuska och plagiera. Även nya studenter tycks sakna tillräcklig kunskap om referat- och citatteknik. Syftet är att är att få en inblick i hur lärare reflekterar kring och arbetar med plagiat på ett studieförberedande program på gymnasiet samt se om det råder några skiljaktigheter mellan lärarna. Jag har gjort en kvalitativ metod och använt mig av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Materialet består av fyra gymnasielärares svar i form av sammanfattande reflektioner och citat från samtliga respondenter. 

  • 7.
    Lundström, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Spänning och motstånd: en studie av samtal i karaktärsämnet på ett elprogram2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how teaching is interactionally accomplished within a vocational program for students studying to become electricians. The data is drawn from video recordings of classroom lectures as well as hands-on instructions at construction work sites. The analysis of the classroom explores how the students exploit poetics and sequential structures of language including especially the Initiative-Response-Evaluation sequence tosupport, challenge or undermine teaching and to build alliances with or against peers. The analysis of the construction work sites focusses on how the teacher and the students use multimodal resources to create situations for teaching and learning. The analysis of the classroom focusses on how students launch different initiatives that compete with the instructional activities in the classroom. These initiatives emerge from and reveal the broad meaning potential inherent in linguistic forms. The analysis shows how structures and roles that are constitutive of the classroom as well as the emergent professional identity of the electrician provide resources for maintaining, challenging or even dissolving instruction.The analysis of the construction work site shows how artefacts, postures, talk, and spatial configurations are handled in relation to place, mobility, and action. In stark contrast with the classroom, students at the construction site compete for the teacher's attention and assistance. The analysis includes descriptions of collaborative moments between the teacher and the students as well situations where the teacher is interrupted and challenged by the students. Three frames are deployed to convey meaning, a professional, a mundane, and an educational. The professional frame involves higher or lesser degrees of manifested professional visions on part of the teacher as well the students. The mundane frame is characterized by playfulness which in turn can jeopardize the professional agenda. Instructions provide a tool for re-establishing an instructional setting where work related tasks can be executed.

  • 8.
    Norberg Brorsson, Birgitta
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Man liksom bara skriver: skrivande och skrivkontexter i grundskolans år 7 och 82007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    You just kind of write. Writing and writing contexts in the years 7 and 8 of the compulsory school.

    This thesis deals with writing and writing contexts in the latter part of the Swedish compulsory school and with the interrelationship between the individual and the context, between the pupil, the teacher, the instruction of writing in the short and long perspective and the school as organization and institution. The general aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of school writing and its conditions by describing, analysing and interpreting the writing instruction from the teachers’, the pupils’ and my own perspectives. Fieldwork for my ethnographic study was conducted in two parallel classes, 36 pupils in all, over three terms in which all texts written during Swedish lessons were gathered. The theoretical framework is the sociocultural approach based on research by Vygotsky and Bachtin. Six texts written by three pupils regarding structure, style and teacher’s written response and the instruction in connection with the writing are analysed. The instruction in the long perspective is analysed with regard to what extent it offered the pupils coherence in their studies. To analyse the instruction in an organizational and institutional view concepts from Berg’s studies on school cultures and Langer’s research on effective American schools are used.

    One major result is that the task, the receiver, the teacher’s response and the non-dialogic classrooms are factors with great impact on the pupils’ texts. Most tasks require that the pupil’s private, personal life and experiences are focused, e.g. in the many narrative texts, whereas discursive texts are not represented at all in the material. The instruction in the long perspective can in the main be characterised as catalogues, i.e. it does not lead to knowledge-in-action and is similar to Swedish as a proficiency subject. As to teacher response it is not possible to see any progression during the three terms but the same aspects are commented on in most texts in both classes and do not improve the texts. The culture and traditions of the school are important influencing factors in the teaching. One reason for this is the lack of in-service training of the teachers when the new steering system of the Swedish school was introduced in the middle of the 1990’s. When organizations undergo fundamental changes traditions seem to exercise greater influence on actors than otherwise. Time has great impact on school activities and three conflicting concepts of time are present at school: the pupil’s activity time, the teacher’s linear time and the institutional time. The work teams play a vital role for the teachers but the care of the pupils take most of their time. Pedagogic and didactic discussions are rare and subject matters have no forum at all. Many of the factors in the writing contexts are institutionally influenced and hence difficult to change but teachers and pupils are actors in school as organization and institution. This means that they can reproduce or transform the structures. In this there are developmental potentials.

  • 9.
    Näslund, Shirley
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Födandets sociala utformning: språkliga och kroppsliga praktiker i förlossningsrummet2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the social construction of birth by analyzing the interaction between the participants present in the delivery room. The data is drawn from 79 video recordings of birth. Six are unedited research recordings and the remaining 73 were edited for pedagogical, documentary and entertaining purposes. The theoretical and analytical perspective is Conversation Analysis. With this microanalytic method, a detailed insight is given to the interaction in the delivery room which should be of linguistic, anthropologic and midwifery interest.

    The thesis demonstrates how different situations are shaped during labor and the first 15 minutes after birth. It reveals how the identities child, girl, boy, mother, father, woman and man are constructed and negotiated in the unfolding interaction between the participants. In this sense, the thesis uncovers the construction of family roles in the delivery room during a delicate interaction between the private persons and the institutional representatives. The latter are charged with the complex task of safeguarding the physical wellbeing of mother and child while also promoting the development of parental identities. The thesis highlights the existence of a social birth work; the institutional interactants make use of a range of linguistic resources to demarcate the progression from second stage labor to birth and to position the newborn as an endeared social creature. Birth is an important liminal situation and is therefore forcefully spoken forth, and, as the thesis shows, enhanced with more or less ritual utterances and actions. Birth is also a matter of bodies, the body in labor, the supporting body of the partner and the appearance of the body of the newborn. The thesis gives insight into how these bodies are managed and stylized in interaction. Further the thesis makes visible the midwife’s use of interactional resources to instill strength into the body of the woman in labor. The results are discussed in light of the socio-cultural circumstances for hospital birth in Sweden.

    List of papers
    1. Jag har inte riktigt fattat att jag har kommit: språk och positioneringar vid födsel
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jag har inte riktigt fattat att jag har kommit: språk och positioneringar vid födsel
    2010 (Swedish)In: Svenskans beskrivning 31: förhandlingar vid Trettioförsta sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning / [ed] Ann-Catrine Edlund, Ingmarie Mellenius, Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet , 2010, p. 281-293Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Minuterna kring ett barns födelse är ofta dramatiska. Ena stunden kan fyllas av den yttersta smärta och den andra av den yttersta glädje. Födelseögonblicket brukar också medföra att statusförändringar talas fram; det fullgångna fostret ska övergå till människa, föderskan ska bli dess mamma och partnern dess pappa.2 I sammanhanget har förlossningspersonalen i uppgift att synliggöra det nyfödda barnet, stärka utvecklandet av föräldraidentiteter och främja interaktionen mellan föräldrar och barn (Handläggning av normal förlossning 2001:45, 58; Lärobok för barnmor skor 2009:48, 436). Med tanke på dessa åligganden och med tanke på att födsel är en allmänmänsklig erfarenhet, är det anmärkningsvärt att interaktionen vid detta tillfälle är så gott som outforskad. I föreliggande artikel presenterar jag en språkvetenskaplig analys av en videoinspelad förlossning.Syftet är att visa vilka positioneringar som sker i födelseögonblickets närhet och hur de åstadkoms.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Umeå: Institutionen för språkstudier, Umeå universitet, 2010
    Series
    Nordsvenska, ISSN 0282-7182 ; 19
    National Category
    Specific Literatures
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34665 (URN)978-91-88466-79-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Den trettioförsta konferensen för svenskans beskrivning ägde rum i Umeå den 20–21 maj 2010
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
    2. I begynnelsen var ordet: tal genom ofödda och nyfödda på förlossningsavdelningen
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>I begynnelsen var ordet: tal genom ofödda och nyfödda på förlossningsavdelningen
    2012 (Swedish)In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 185-214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines the phenomenon of speaking through others in the specific context of labor and delivery at the birth clinic. Speech through a fetus or a newborn child is analyzed as a social act, receiving its meaning from the interactional and situational context. The data are drawn from a corpus of Scandinavian television documentaries. Previous research about speech through others has highlighted its function as face-work. This study shows that speech through fetuses and newborn children also can be regarded as a form of face-work, for instance as an indirect way of exhorting a woman in labor to mobilize more strength, or as an indirect way for finding out if a mother in the after-math of bearing-down contractions is ready to hold her newborn child. However, speech through fetuses and newborns does not merely serve as face-work. Above all it performs birth work: it verbalizes the birth and highlights the human, sociable character of the child. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk, 2012
    Keywords
    speech through others, animated speech, indirectness, interaction, face-work, birth work, childbirth, Swedish
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34664 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Att samkonstruera en faderskapsrit: en studie i interaktionen vid klippet av navelsträngen
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att samkonstruera en faderskapsrit: en studie i interaktionen vid klippet av navelsträngen
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim of this article is to provide research about rites a new methodological perspective and to reintroduce rite as an analytical concept to linguistics, by showing how conversation analysis (CA) and membership categorization analysis (MCA) can reveal the rituality of an act from a member’s point of view. CA and MCA give insight into the dependence on the orientations of the participants and their cooperation in constructing an act as a rite. In this sense, the article fulfills the appeal of the sociologist Andrew Roth for a new consideration of the situated and dynamic circumstances of rites.

    The specific aim is to investigate how the ritual dimension of the man’s cutting of theumbilical cord is manifested in the interplay between the participants in the delivery room. In Swedish delivery wards fathers are routinely asked whether they would like to cut the umbilical cord of their newborn child. In previous anthropological research, which has been based on interviews and questionnaires, the character of the cut as a paternity rite has been discussed. Yet, there has been no study about what actually happens in the delivery room; there has been no proof that the participants in real time orient to the act as something more than a mere cut. The present study draws on a corpus of 16 videorecordings from the delivery room that captures the interaction surrounding the cut in real time. The linguistic microanalysis shows that the participants, by different means, elevate the man’s cutting of the cord as a valued act that is imbued with symbolism. It is shown that the cutting of the cord is a category-bound activity, reserved for the man and connected to the speaking forth of the category daddy.

    Keywords
    conversation analysis, medical interaction, membership categorization, paternity, rite de passage, umbilical cord.
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34667 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    4. It's a girl!: Social and linguistic practices for assigning sex in the delivery room1
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>It's a girl!: Social and linguistic practices for assigning sex in the delivery room1
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    That society divides its members into females and males is the point of departure for muchresearch on gender and language yet the situated accomplishment of the primordial sexcategorization of the newborn child has not attracted much scholarly attention. The presentstudy fills this research gap by exploring the social and linguistic organization of sexassignment in a corpus of 67 videorecordings of birth. We present quantitative and qualitativesupport for the idea that sex assignment is a prioritized activity during the first minutes afterchild birth. Contrary to descriptions and assumptions in previous research we find that sexassignment typically engenders extended sequences of talk that requires collaborationbetween parents and medical staff. Furthermore, we find the assignment to be a genderedpractice in that fathers are given primary entitlement to proclaim the sex of their offspring.We conclude the study by situating our research in its socio-cultural context.

    Keywords
    sex assignment, childbirth, membership, categorization, conversation analysis
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34666 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    5. Referens, perspektiv och sociala relationer: samtalsanalys av videoinspelningar fråntvå förlossningsavdelningar
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Referens, perspektiv och sociala relationer: samtalsanalys av videoinspelningar fråntvå förlossningsavdelningar
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett referensuttrycks innebörd skapas i ett samspel mellan dess lexikala resurser och den kontext det uppträder i (Norén & Linell 2007:387). Vidare anger varje val av referensuttryck ett visst perspektiv; det konstruerar en viss verklighetsbild och väcker vissa konnotationer att förhålla sig till (jfr Schegloff 1972, Sacks 1992). Till exempel förmedlar en student som refererar till sitt lärosäte med skola en annan bild av det och sin inställning till det, än den som använder universitet.

    Föreliggande studie visar å ena sidan hur förlossningspersonalens olika val av referensuttryck anpassas efter deninstitutionella uppgiften för händer och får situationen och barnet att framträda i olika dagrar. Å andra sidan visar den hur föderskans olika val av referensuttryck anpassas efter den fas hon befinner sig i och framför hennes perspektiv på situationen och barnet. Framför allt visar studien hur referensuttrycken och de därtill hörande perspektiven förhandlas under dessa samtalsdeltagares interaktion, hur de bryts mot varandra, sammanfaller eller bygger på varandra.

    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Research subject
    Swedish Language
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34669 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    6. ”Ja orkar inte längre” – ”Du orKAr”: språkliga bemötanden avföderskors modlöshet
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Ja orkar inte längre” – ”Du orKAr”: språkliga bemötanden avföderskors modlöshet
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Specific Languages
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-34670 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 10.
    Randahl, Ann-Christin
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences. Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Strategiska skribenter: skrivprocesser i fysik och svenska2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore how experienced student writers in Swedish schools handle two different writing tasks, a lab report in physics and a text to be written within Swedish as a school subject. Applying a dialogical perspective on writing, the study is an attempt to explore what role subject contexts play for the students’ writing processes and to what extent the strategies used by the students are more individual. The writing tasks were solved outside of class, a frequent, but relatively unexplored way of organizing writing tasks in upper secondary school in Sweden.The results of the study indicate that different subject contexts enforce the emergence of different writing processes. The lab report was written in a certain order, from easy to difficult parts. Each part of the text was written on its own. Editing affecting the macrostructure of the text did not occur. In contrast, when writing the text within Swedish as a school subject, the paragraphs were developed at several different times during the writing process and questions concerning the global structure of the text seem constantly to have presented themselves. Extensive deletions were performed, and new angles to the subject introduced, affecting the macrostructure of the text.Writing processes are also individual. In a close-up study, three students – here called Kerstin, Paula and Sara – video filmed their work with the two texts. The texts were logged by the students, writing on Google Drive. In this material the individual strategies come out in basically two ways: in the resources chosen by the students as well as in their editing of their texts. Kerstin may be said to have used “herself” or, rather, a general writing ability. For Paula, her father functioned as an important resource. Sara was the one of the three who used digital media most frequently. In the students’ editing patterns, above all, Kerstin and Sara differed significantly. Kerstin did her editing during the formulation stage, regardless of writing task, while Sara mainly did her editing after the formulation stage.

  • 11.
    Räihä, Helge
    Örebro University, Department of Humanities.
    Lärares dilemman2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of the present dissertation is teachers’ everyday dilemmas and the use of language to deal with these dilemmas. The concept of dilemma is compared to the concept of risk and the concept of paradox. The theoretical background consists of sociological systems theory and linguistic pragmatic theory. The empirical data consist of observations of teachers in everyday situations. The theoretical and empirical approaches are used to illuminate each other. Teachers’ ways of dealing with dilemmas are described as use of linguistic resources. Results show that dilemmas are complex social phenomenon that include global system media, trust and language use. Teachers face dilemmas as unpredicted clashes of conflicting expectations. The conflicting expectations come into view as global system media and local trust. The resources required in the constructing of trust and rationality shows how teachers are dealing with dilemmas. Teachers’ ways of dealing with dilemmas come into view as use of linguistic resources for logic and modality.

  • 12.
    Svensson, Tomas
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Alexander, Sara och skriften: en skriftbruksetnografisk studie av barn i mellanåren2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on literacy in children aged 11-12. The overriding purpose is to describe the specific competencies that children employ in their daily use of writing. What do they do with writing and how do they do it?

    The theoretical framework is primarily the strand of literacy research that belongs to the field of New Literacy Studies, where literacy is understood as socially and contextually related. The study also draws on ethnomethodology in the sense that the object of study is the daily actions through which we construct our lives and negotiate identities. Two children, a boy and a girl, with different socio-economic backgrounds and family situations were observed at home, in school and during freetime activities for more than a year through an ethnographic research approach.

    The thesis identifies the different competencies that the children activate. In one case competencies involving oral skills are primarily used as resources in problem solving, while writing and reading are used to solve similar problems as a matter of course in the other case. The thesis also shows that a common use of writing is to regulate and organise everyday and special activities such as planning Christmas gifts and to write reminders that school tasks need to be completed andreported.

    In terms of materiality, writing is available in more or less conventionalised formats. Common formats for everyday written products are sheets of paper in different sizes (A4 to post-it notes), or digital screens (computer, TV, mobile phone). The school whiteboard has a special materiality and is the material source of a great many of the everydaywritten products.

  • 13.
    Vuorenpää, Sari
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Litteracitet genom interaktion2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation Litteracitet genom interaktion [‘Literacy through Interaction’] spotlights how literacy interaction can work in the primary school’s multilinguistic environments. It investigates conversations that occur in and around teaching about writing. The study material was collected from three different schools from year zero to year three, and special focus is given to what I call literacy chains. These chains are connected by the fact that they all concern a writing assignment that every pupil must complete, which in my material involves the text types narrative, factual text and poem. During the teaching sequences that unfold, there is an interplay of literary events in connection with speech, writing and various artefacts. My main object of inquiry is the interaction that occurs in these literacy chains.

    The dissertation demonstrates that the teachers’ lessons with the class as a whole lead to fixed conversational patterns, with pupils asked questions that require specific responses. The conversations tend to form either a so-called IRE pattern, where the reader’s initiative for a question demands a given answer in response which is then evaluated by the teacher, or a list pattern, with the pupils filling in answers.

    In situations involving the whole class, persistent, determined pupils are needed to break into the teacher’s monologue. When persistence wins out, from the pupil’s perspective, pupils can contribute new aspects to these conversations. In small groups and in one-on-one conversations, there are more pupil initiatives, since conversational patterns are not as fixed or predetermined.

    One key finding is that multilinguistic resources are sometimes made use of even though the schoolwork is usually based on a single-language conversational norm. Yet it is clear that multilingualism is a useful resource regardless of the teacher’s language background. On several occasions, we encounter participants who together construct a multilinguistic environment where languages are interwoven.

    All three literacy chains provide pupils with clear templates for writing, which determine what the pupils are supposed to do. The writing template in the poem chain serves as support for their writing but is not a straitjacket. This can be compared to the template for the factual text, which includes a copy of the model text.

    The written language norm of writing properly is communicated in great detail by the teachers to the pupils. Writing properly is not just having good, legible handwriting, but in school the writing norms to be applied in writing assignments are made relevant.

    On a more general level, the study illustrates that material resources vary in the schools, from green chalkboards to classroom resources that include laptops. However, schoolwork is predicated on paper-based writing. There is built-in stress, since schoolwork is governed by time, with a schedule that determines learning activities down to the minute, with them ending at a precise time. There is a race against time.

  • 14.
    Yassin Falk, Daroon
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Skrivundervisning i grundskolans årskurs 32017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation constitutes an illustration of how writing instruction in elementary school, year three, is conducted. At this stage of schooling, most pupils are assumed to have acquired basic reading and writing skills, and from now on, and increasingly over the years that follow, they are expected to read and write longer texts within different genres and subjects. The aim of this thesis is to study writing lessons that were conducted under the framework of four writing projects in a classroom, and the student-written texts that that resulted thereof. The writing pro-jects are characterised by focus on similar text types, which in my mate-rial includes "the fairy tale", "a letter to the editor", "instructions" and a "factual text". The focus of the study is on the relationship between the learning support offered to the pupils in the classroom and the na-ture of texts that the pupils then write.

    The research is inspired by ethnographic methodology, and is based on material consisting of field notes, video recordings and student texts. The theoretical framework assumes a socio-cultural view of learning and a dialogical view of text and writing. The teaching practices are studied on the basis of how they are built up by different chains of activities (reading, conversation and writing). Particular attention is paid to which text dimensions are addressed in classroom conversations: content, form or function. The pupils’ texts are analysed on the basis of their macro structure, and the analysis builds on the concept of "text activity".

    On an overall level, the results point to writing being a social activity, which is also closely interconnected to reading, and above all dialogue and conversation. The writing instruction offered to the students is also characterized by a broad view of what literacy is about. The study points out the value of versatile learning support, where the function, form and content of texts, in relation to the learning goals, are made explicit in the teaching. An important result is that the functional dimension of writing, in particular, favours writing development. On a more general level, the study raises the question of which literacy skills can and should be pro-moted by writing education in the early primary school years.

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