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  • 1.
    Calissendorff, Maria
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    "Om man inte vill spela – då blir det jättesvårt": en studie av en grupp förskolebarns musikaliska lärande i fiolspel2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation project involved following a group of six pre-school children (five years old) in the first year of their learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. The purpose of the study was to generate a theory which could increase our understanding of how small children learn an instrument where their parents are present at the lessons. The focus was on the child’s perspective. In line with Grounded Theory, the theory was built up as the investigation proceeded.

    All the lessons and concerts during the first year of learning were observed. The children, parents and teacher were interviewed three times. From the observations there emerged “leads” that were followed up in subsequent observations, interviews and chats. From the leads came categories, from which in turn came the core category learning style.

    The children differed in their ways of concentrating and of imbibing, dealing with and remembering information. They had different learning styles. Environmental, emotional, social, physiological and psychological factors affected each child’s learning style to a different extent. The study’s theory of learning style was subsequently integrated into the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model and could thereby be regarded as formal.

    The conclusion is that if the teacher is to pay regard to the children’s individual learning styles (these having chiefly to do with different perceptual preferences), he or she must present the content of the lesson in different ways.

  • 2.
    Danielsson, Annika
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musik oss emellan: identitetsdimensioner i ungdomars musikaliska deltagande2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers ordinary Swedish teenagers and their everyday use of,and views on, music. The aim of the study is to analyse the relationship between identity and adolescents’ use of music in their daily lives. Theories are employed that hold identity to be a process, and that comprise the social as well as the psychological aspects of the individual (Giddens,1991; 1997; Jenkins, 2008). Since for both Giddens and Jenkins the reflexive identity process takes place in everyday life, it is a concept that is essential to this study. The idea that people are active, not passive, in their day-to-day use of cultural products ultimately leads to Small’s (1998) definition of musicking. The empirical part of the study was carried out among fifteen eighthgraders (14–15 years) in two schools in two Swedish cities. An initial questionnaire provided outlines of the adolescents’ musical preferences, and were followed by focus group conversations centred on six music examples. Later, interviews were carried out to chart the informants’ individual relationships with music and their personal use of it. The material is analysed thematically in three chapters on music and ‘them’, music and ‘us’, and music and ‘me’. In the final chapter, a competent musicking agency is held to be a combinationof individual and social factors. Whether these aspects can coexist boils down to the question of authenticity: much like Giddens’s competent agent, the competent musicking agent moves between life sectors, maintaining balance between uniqueness and normality, and is therefore perceived as authentic by both herself and others. In school, pupils tend to choose music that promotes their public image. Instead of yielding to a tussle between self-image and public image, it is suggested that music education should become a free zone where the well known is looked at in newways, and where one could get to know the unknown.

  • 3. Ehrlin, Anna
    Att lära av och med varandra: en etnografisk studie av musik i förskolan i en flerspråkig miljö2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine music’s place and function in the pedagogical activities at two music preschools. I address the following questions.

    • Which factors have influenced the development of a music profile at these preschools?

    • How do the preschool teachers relate to music in their profession?

    • What is thought important in the preschools’ musical activities?

    • How do singing and other musical activities stimulate multilingual children’s language and social participation?

    The study is an ethnographic study interpreted in a hermeneutic tradition, informed by a socio-cultural theory. Fieldwork was conducted over a period of two years. The principal methods used are interviews with preschool teachers and observations of preschool children and teachers in action. The study’s findings highlight that preschool principals have great impact on the didactic choices made: they have supported all the preschool teachers in developing the musical competence to teach music in a preschool setting. This has been crucial for the development of these music preschools. The study also shows that various musical activities widen the children’s aspiration and confidence about participation. Communication with sound and motion is a form of expression that is open to all, even in times when children’s spoken language is not sufficient. At these preschools music therefore has a function of stimulating the Swedish language development. Music also creates a sense of community at these preschools. Musical activities give the children examples of how to act in various situations. Musical activities also transcend boundaries. Listening to different types of music is part of the preschools’ own culture. Finally, music has an aesthetic function that provides musical experiences. However, this function is not particularly obvious in the preschool teachers’ discussion of the didactics of the musical activities. It is more important to express the fact that the music-making itself is key. Such an argumentation will manifest the place of music at these preschools, and perhaps will also support the development of the music practice as such. The study shows that it takes time for many preschool teachers to be confident in teaching music, and since the national curriculum says that music should be a part of the preschool agenda, it is important that music should become a standard subject in the preschool teacher education programme.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Helene
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Systematisk analys och lösning av pianistiskt tekniska problem: instuderingsmodell tillämpad på F. Chopins etyder op. 252006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The problem-area studied in the present thesis concerns pianistic technique, with special reference to the possibilities of enhancing the efficiency of pianistic practice and increasing the awareness of chosen strategies of practice. The main aim of the thesis was to develop, on the basis of literature and praxis, a model for the systematic analysis and solution of problems of pianistic technique, as a tool to realize musical intentions. In accordance with this aim, it seemed fruitful to take advantage of knowledge from a number of relevant disciplines (regarding for example, prerequisites for pianistic technique and the practical solution of musical and pianistic problems). Hereby the work has obtained an inter-disciplinary character. General Systems Theory and Systems Analysis were applied as theoretically and methodologically unifying bases, respectively. It may be pointed out that in the field of systems analysis a number of useful descriptive techniques have been developed and become well-established. These techniques and a specially designed model have been applied, partly to the musical structures which are dealt with both from a level-related and a block/line-related systems perspective, partly to the solution of problems of pianistic technique. In the latter case inter- as well as intra-musical factors are considered. To test and evaluate the special model it has been applied to Chopin’s 12 Etudes, Op. 25, and an artistic illustration of the results of this application has been given, partly through the playing of a piano concerto on stage and partly in the form of a DVD-recording. The suggested approach and the special model have proved suitable for organizing pianistic practice and for realizing musical intentions. It has proved possible: to develop a model for the systematic analysis and solution of problems of pianistic technique, as a tool to realize musical intentions; to apply this model to Chopin’s 12 Etudes, Op. 25; to give an artistic illustration of the results of this application, partly through the playing of a piano concerto on stage and partly in the form of a DVD-recording.

  • 5.
    Georgii-Hemming, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Berättelsen under deras fötter: fem musiklärares livshistorier2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation concerns five music teachers who teach on the course Artistic Activity at upper secondary school and the main aim is to acquire an understanding of the teachers’ views of the core subject Music. A further aim is to describe the five teachers' personal experiences of music in various social, educational and musical contexts, and how these experiences affect their teaching.

    The empirical material is designated life stories and comprises narratives, written by the teachers themselves and orally related to the researcher through conversations. The problem area concerns relations between life’s different directions in a number of interacting temporal and contextual dimensions. For this reason the interpretation of the teachers’ views of music as experience and as school subject is carried out on three levels of abstraction regarded as interacting with one another. The individual teachers’ narratives concerning their lives were on a first level of abstraction analysed and contextualised biographically, from which emerged five life histories which constituted the basis for in-depth hermeneutic interpretation. By way of interpretations on the personal, educational and institutional level the discussion concludes on the third level of abstraction, where focus is on the relationship between the teachers’ work and the broader educational discourse in society.

    The study also offers a discussion of the possibilities and problems of hermeneutics as an overall theoretical frame of reference. Furthermore it takes up theoretical angles of approach concerning narratives, this in connection with life history method.

    The study indicates that what is essential in the relationship between the five music teachers’ personal experience of music and their work is not the concrete experience of different types of music, of different musical contexts or of particular educational environments where such experience has been acquired. There is no straightforward relation of cause and effect and indeed there are certain differences between the teachers in this respect. However, there is a vital relation in that what

    the teachers have derived from their own musical experiences – pleasure and play, skill, a sense of community, outlet for emotion – is what they want to pass on to the pupils. Musical knowledge is regarded as personal and as being generated in processes where the pupils’ everyday culture is reconstructed. When this basic attitude to music comes into conflict with the teacher’s work, there appears another, joint discourse which is considered distinctive of contemporary life. Accordingly, the discussion takes up the theme of the individual in the centre, both in education – where the focus is on the pupil’s resources, requirements and need to assume responsibility – and in society as a whole, where such values as freedom of choice have acquired greater importance than collective ones.

  • 6.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    "Vissa elever kunde nästan inte läsa noter": En kvalitativ studie om undervisningstraditioner2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att med utgångspunkt i lärares utbildning, undersöka om trumpetlärares undervisning vid musik- och kulturskolor skiljer sig åt vad gäller innehåll och arbetssätt. Undersökningen är genomförd med hjälp av kvalitativa metoder för att samla empiriskt material. Fyra lärare, i olika åldrar och med olika utbildning, deltar i studien. 

    Analysen av resultatet genererade en modell som presenteras i diskussionen. Det visade sig bland annat att lärarnas arbetssätt och innehållet i undervisningen var beroende av när man lät musiken komma in i bilden. De olika lärarna kunde också ”delas in” i två undervisningstraditioner vilka skulle kunna betecknas som skapande och återskapande. 

  • 7.
    Kjellander, Eva
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Jag och mitt fanskap: vad musik kan betyda för människor2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to find further understanding of how people with special interest in a certain artist utilise music and the fact that they are fans in their everyday lives. I have opted to study two fans included in each group selected for this study: Kiss, Status Quo and Lasse Stefanz, one male and one female fan belonging to each respective group. I have worked according to grounded theory as a method, and through an analysis of their musical life stories, I have attempted to identify why they became fans and how them being fans has affected them in their lives.

    Four categories, fandom as: a marker of identity, socialisation, a form of self therapy and a pseudo religion and the core category authenticity usage show the results of the study. The categories show that to a large extent it all comes down to the musical identity of these people, i.e. the identity of being a fan, and their experiences of being fans. They have been socialised into a specific genre, which has meant increased interest in a specific artist. Family, media and friends have all played a part in this socialisation. The informants have developed cultural competence as concerns their idols, although they have also gained the subcultural capital resources required in order to come across as credible fans. Various kinds of experiences offer meaning and nourish the fans. Security and stability in everyday lives are also contributing factors to them being fans and the music offers them something that they are unable to acquire from elsewhere. They have established different strategies in order to be able to be fans, one of these being legitimacy. A vital part of this legitimacy consists in them viewing the bands as authentic, i.e. important.

  • 8.
    Larsson, Christina
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Att lära genom improvisation: en didaktisk studie i grundskolans musikundervisning2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the growing field of research on improvisation, it is argued that improvisation should be at the core of music education, and in many curricula improvisation is in fact emphasized. However, in general music education, as well as research, improvisation is still overlooked. There seem to be a discursive gap between ‘everyday’ and artistic perceptions of improvisation and the way it is perceived didactically. Improvisation is also a creative music activity form and as such it cannot have prescribed outcomes. Yet, the current goal- and result driven schooling system focuses on achieving prescribed knowledge requirements. This situation constitutes an educational paradox. Through a systematic literature review, interviews with teachers and a practice-based study, this thesis explores the conditions and the role of improvisation in general music education. The theoretical perspective is based on Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, and his concepts of aesthetic experience and transaction. Results show that improvisation is conceptualised in a continuum between structure and freedom and that teachers’ didactical approaches to improvisation can be oriented towards the process, the subject or Bildung. However, teachers’ perceptions of improvisation as related to jazz and blues sometimes present a hindrance. Combining a practical epistemology analysis with Dewey´s concept of the esthetic event (Dewey´s spelling) provides new insights into the process and content of aesthetic meaning-making. Improvising pupils who have an aesthetic experience can develop expressivity, agency and responsivity (EAR) as well as aspects of embodied, cognitive and ethical knowledge. The transactional perspective and 5 concepts developed here provide new insights in how to understand improvisation in education: as ethically co-creative action, co-learning action, explorative action, a space for imagination and emotional engagement and finally a room for subjectification. This implies a negotiated role for the teacher as co-player. A practical aesthetic analysis (PESA) is suggested which emphasises the specific nature of the aesthetic experience.

    List of papers
    1. Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation in General Music Education: A literature review
    2019 (English)In: British Journal of Music Education, ISSN 0265-0517, E-ISSN 1469-2104, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-67Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this article is to provide a convenient summary of empirical research on improvisation in general music education and thereby provide guidance to researchers and practitioners, using a systematic, narrative-review approach. By analysing 20 music education research articles, published from 2000–2015 in peer-reviewed journals,we firstly provide an overview of the key features and knowledge of existing research. Secondly we identify how improvisation has been characterized, conceptually before, thirdly, describing the implications of the literature for improvisation in practice. Our article reveals that improvisation tends to be an overlooked activity both in music education contexts and in music education research. Broadly speaking, music education research tends to characterise improvisation within two conceptual frameworks, which have different implications for implementation; ‘structured’, teacher-directed improvisation and ‘free’, child-directed improvisation. We conclude by arguing that music educational research on improvisation is an underdeveloped field and outline a number of questions to be addressed in future research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2019
    National Category
    Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-52882 (URN)10.1017/S026505171800013X (DOI)000466759900005 ()2-s2.0-85048884464 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2016-10-10 Created: 2016-10-10 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    2. Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improvisation i musikundervisningen: tre lärares didaktiska förhållningssätt
    (Swedish)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78148 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
    3. A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Deweyan take on improvisation as an experience: An example from a Swedish year 4 music class
    2019 (English)In: Expanding the space for improvisation pedagogy in music: a transdisciplinary approach / [ed] G. G. Johansen, K. Holdhus, C. Larsson & U. MacGlone, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 61-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I argue that specific valuable educational qualities can be developed through free group improvisation in general music education. My claims are operationalised through a set of research questions to investigate students’ actions, and characteristics as well as implications of these actions in improvisation events. John Dewey’s theory of aesthetic experience, and more specifically an experience, is employed as analytical lens in analysis of children’s improvisations. I argue that an experience in improvisation occurs in and through a reciprocal interaction with the environment which means that when children improvise, they change due to their musical experiences but they also in turn change their musical environment. Crucially, I argue that having an experience in free group improvisation can cultivate Expressiveness, Agency and Responsiveness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London: Routledge, 2019
    Keywords
    improvisation, general music education, aesthetic experience, an experience
    National Category
    Musicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-78149 (URN)9780815392101 (ISBN)9781351199957 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2019-11-26 Created: 2019-11-26 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
    4. Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Music improvisation as an aesthetic event: Towards a transactional approach to meaning-making
    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Philosophy in Arts Education, ISSN 2002-4665, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 121-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Improvisation in general music education is still a somewhat underdeveloped practice. Moreover, attempts to justify its place in the curriculum have often focused solely on its (measurable) outcomes. In this article, we claim that a deeper understanding of students' meaning-making processes in experiences of improvisation is necessary in order to develop improvisation practice and research. The purpose of this article is to offer a music education perspective on improvisation based on John Dewey's transactional perspective on aesthetic experience and meaning-making. Related to this, we suggest and illustrate a Practical Epistemology Analysis (PEA) as a way of analysing meaning-making in music improvisation within general music education. The method of analysis is illustrated by vignettes from video analyses of music lessons in two Swedish schools with pupils aged 9-10 and their free improvisations. The vignettes show how PEA enables analyses of situated meaning-making in the progress of the pupils' improvisation activities. Further, the transactional perspective makes educational values of improvisation visible, such as musical and personal agency, and elucidates cognitive, embodied and ethical aspects of musical meaning-making.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut / Stockholm University College of Music Education, 2018
    National Category
    Social Sciences Musicology
    Research subject
    Musicology esp. Musical Education
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-70322 (URN)
    Available from: 2018-11-25 Created: 2018-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-26Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Linda
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Samverkan kring barns läsning: -En studie med föräldrar i fokus2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Svensson, Tobias
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Utommusikaliska pedagogiska vinster: Studier av sambandet mellan musikundervisning och elevers studieresultat i kärnämnena2009Student paper second term, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Denna uppsats syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan mängden musikundervisning och elevers slutbetyg i ämnena Svenska, Matematik och Engelska. Undersökningen har gjorts genom en kvantitativ statistisk jämförelse. Underlaget för statistiken har utgjorts av ca 200 elevers slutbetyg i årskurs 9, där ca hälften av eleverna går i skolor med musikprofil, och resterande hälft elever går i skolor elever med allmän profil. Jämförelsen visar att eleverna från skolor med musikprofil, generellt har högre betyg i kärnämnena eller inga underkända. Det kan finnas flera saker som har betydelse för elevernas studieresultat vilka belyses i diskussionen. Förhoppningsvis kan denna uppsats hjälpa musiklärare i legitimeringsfrågan kring deras arbete.

  • 11.
    Tivenius, Olle
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musiklärartyper: en typologisk studie av musiklärare vid kommunal musikskola2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to establish a typology for instrumental music teachers at Swedish municipal music schools, and to describe different types, generated from questionnaire-answers, regarding how their attitudes and valuations in matters concerning democracy in broad sense are reflected in their pedagogical activity.

    I address the following concrete questions.

    • From where do music teachers at Swedish municipal music and culture schools get their attitudes and valuations, what circumstances lie behind, and are there specific circumstances that explain attitudes and valuations that are not embraced by most of them?

    • How can different types of music teachers be described?

    • How do the attitudes and valuations differ between different types?

    • How are the attitudes and valuations of the different types reflected in their respective work?

    In the first place I try to answer the questions by using questionnaires which I analyse with methods including factor and cluster techniques. In order to generate intelligible pictures of the types I also interpret, by mean value and correlation analyses, quantitatively dependent data with hermeneutical tools.

    The population is about 5 000 individuals, represented by 834 informants.

    The results show that each subject (singing, strings, brass, etc.) has its own inherited culture, with its own set of attitudes and valuations These attitudes and valuations are, in the first place, transmissioned within the subjects.

    The questionnaire answers have generated eight different types: MISSIONARY, GATE KEEPER, MUSIC MAKER, MASTER TEACHER, MUSIC DIRECTOR, REFORMIST, ANTI-FORMALIST, and PEDAGOGUE. Each of them has their own set of attitudes and valuations, which are based on the four factors MISSION, FEELING, FOUNDATION, and STUDENT-FOCUS. The eight types and their significant qualities, can be described, in reasonable and recognized ways. Different discourses can also be discerned.

    Most types seem to have a given position at music school. THE REFORMIST, however, appears to be dissatisfied. He or she is rooted in classical music, but wants to teach the children to play music of their own, although he or she is lacking the didactical tools for this kind of teaching. THE REFORMIST constitutes 19 % of the population and is thereby the largest group.

    Among other things, one conclusion drawn from the discussion is that the conservatory discourse is a cement keeping together the whole field of music education, and without it the structure and organisation of music school as well as college of music would collapse into a messed-up activity beyond defini¬tion. Another conclusion is that education of music teachers must be reformed with the starting point in democracy and philosophy, if discoursive isolation of music school should not become total—with fatal consequences for music school. These two conclusions stand for opposite poles, which must be balanced to each other.

  • 12.
    Wiger Pilotti, Katarina
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Vägen till Bel Canto: Om min omskolning till Chiaroscuro2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I am a practising classical soprano. After more than 20 years of professional singing, I re-trained my voice according to principles of the old Italian school of singing. In this essay, I examine the origins and priciples of bel canto, with special focus on appoggio and chiaroscuro, two key ingredients in the bel cantao tradition. I explore the relationship between science and the craft of singing, and what modern voice science has to say about the efficiency and health aspects of this technique, I also describe the profound effect it has had on me as an artist.

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