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  • 1.
    Abdullah, Muhammad
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Mobile Robot Navigation using potential fields andmarket based optimization2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A team of mobile robots moving in a shared area raises the problem of safe and autonomous navigation. While avoiding static and dynamic obstacles, mobile robots in a team can lead to complicated and irregular movements. Local reactive approaches are used to deal with situations where robots are moving in dynamic environment; these approaches help in safe navigation of robots but do not give optimal solution. In this work a 2-D navigation strategy is implemented, where a potential field method is used for obstacle avoidance. This potential field method is improved using fuzzy rules, traffic rules and market based optimization (MBO). Fuzzy rules are used to deform repulsive potential fields in the vicinity of obstacles. Traffic rules are used to deal situations where two robots are crossing each other. Market based optimization (MBO) is used to strengthen or weaken repulsive potential fields generated by other robots based on their importance. For the verification of this strategy on more realistic vehicles this navigation strategy is implemented and tested in simulation. Issues while implementing this method and limitations of this navigation strategy are also discussed. Extensive experiments are performed to examine the validity of MBO navigation strategy over traditional potential field (PF) method.

  • 2.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Coaching by gaming: an instructor perspective of game-based vocational training2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organisations have a long history of using games for training. Over the years, they have developed training practices involving role-play, simulations, puckstering and gaming. Most researchers in serious games, i.e. games used for non-entertainment purposes, focus their studies on the learners. This licentiate thesis, instead, takes a closer look on the roles of instructors in game-based training situations, specifically at the Swedish Land Warfare Centre. Through a mix of theoretical and empirical studies, training practices were scrutinised, resulting in a framework for gamebased vocational training. A key element of this framework is the coaching by gaming perspective in which instructors give un-intrusive, formative feedback through role-play and gameplay. Another important aspect of the framework involves dynamic debriefing. These insights points to specific needs for system support for instructors involved in game-based training. They also emphasise the fact that serious gaming is a highly contextualised activity made up of more than the game and the players

    List of papers
    1. Letting the students create and the teacher play: expanding the roles in serious gaming
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letting the students create and the teacher play: expanding the roles in serious gaming
    2011 (English)In: MindTrek'11: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, New York: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2011, p. 63-70Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organisations have a long history of using games for training. Over the years, they have developed training practices involving role-play, simulations, puckstering and gaming. Most researchers in serious games, i.e. games used for non-entertainment purposes, focus their studies on the learners. This licentiate thesis, instead, takes a closer look on the roles of instructors in game-based training situations, specifically at the Swedish Land Warfare Centre. Through a mix of theoretical and empirical studies, training practices were scrutinised, resulting in a framework for gamebased vocational training. A key element of this framework is the coaching by gaming perspective in which instructors give un-intrusive, formative feedback through role-play and gameplay. Another important aspect of the framework involves dynamic debriefing. These insights points to specific needs for system support for instructors involved in game-based training. They also emphasise the fact that serious gaming is a highly contextualised activity made up of more than the game and the players.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education, 2011
    Keywords
    Coaching cycle, debriefing, game-based training, instructor roles, player roles, puckstering, serious games, serious gaming, system support
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Informatics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20749 (URN)10.1145/2181037.2181049 (DOI)978-1-4503-0816-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    MindTrek 2011, Tampere, Finland, September 28-30, 2011
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
    2. Introducing the coaching cycle: a coaching by gaming perspective of serious gaming
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing the coaching cycle: a coaching by gaming perspective of serious gaming
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations have a long history of using simulations, role-play and games for training. This also encompasses good practices concerning how instructors utilize games and gaming behavior. Unfortunately, the work of instructors is rarely described explicitly in research relating to serious gaming. Decision makers also tend to have overconfidence in the pedagogical power in games and simulations, where the instructor is taken out of the gaming loop. We propose a framework, the coaching cycle, that focuses on the roles of instructors. The roles include instructors acting as game players. The fact that the instructors take a more active part in all training activities will further improve learning. The coaching cycle integrates theories of experiential learning (where action precedes theory) and deliberate practice (where the trainee’s skill is constantly challenged by a coach). Incorporating a coaching by gaming perspective complicates, but also strengthens, the player-centered design approach to game development in that you need to take into account two different types of players: trainees and instructor. Furthermore, we argue that the coaching cycle allows for a shift of focus to more thorough debriefing, since it implies that learning of theoretical material before simulation/game playing is kept to a minimum. This shift will increase the transfer of knowledge.

    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Research subject
    Computer and Systems Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20754 (URN)
    Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Dessne, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Supporting knowledge management with information technology: the significance of formal and informal structures2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge Management (KM) is a relatively young field of research. It has traditionally aimed at managing work in organisations often by the assistance of supporting Information Technology (IT).

    In this thesis, the definition of KM is expressed as facilitating the intertwined process of learning and knowing in an organisation. in order to support this process by IT KM needs to be based on an understanding of the significance of the formal and informal structures that organisations are built on. Using the word knowing rather than knowledge assists in approaching the issue of how to facilitate learning and knowing, since it declares knowing as a process or as a state of mind. This process feeds on what is available in the form of nourishment, which is supplied in the form of information. KM then has two ways of supporting learning and knowing: by nourishing and by encouraging this process.

    Two analysis frameworks were constructed from two subsequent literature reviews of KM, Computer Supported Collaborative Work/Lerarning (CSCW/CSCL), and Communities of Practice (CoP). These models were used to describe and analyse the learning process of the selected case, a Swedish military organisation. It soon became evident that the formal learning process did not work as intended, and that the informal structures and processes struggled to accomplish the results that the formal process failed to deliver. The formal and informal processes were not aligned and neither worked satisfyingly. Informal structures exists within formal structures and they are both equally important. They are intertwined and dependent on each other. as the findings of this case study has revealed.

    In supporting learning and knowing in organisations, IT needs to support both formal and informal structures. IT could nourish structures and processes, and IT could encourage participation and interaction in them. As learning is based on interaction supporting it is vital, but at the same time, no interaction will occur without nourishment. These are the impĺications for IT when designing for learning and knowing in organisations. It is not only a matter of supplying and making information available, but also of encouraging interaction in aligned formal and informal structures.

  • 4.
    Helldin, Tove
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Human-centred automation: with application to the fighter aircraft domain2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The working situation of fighter pilots is often very challenging. The pilots are requested to perform their tasks and make decisions in situations characterised by time-pressure, huge amounts of data and high workload, knowing that wrong decisions might result in fatal consequences. To aid the pilots, several automatic support systems have been implemented in modern fighter aircraft and will continue to be implemented in pace with technological advancements and new demands posed on the pilots. For example, innovations within the information fusion (IF) domain have made it possible to fuse large amounts of data, stemming from different sensors, databases etc., to create a better foundation for making decisions and act than would have been possible if the information sources had been used separately. However, there are both positive and negative effects of automation, such as decreased workload and improved situation awareness on the one hand, but skill degradation and complacent behaviour on the other. To avoid the possible negative consequences of automation, while at the same time ameliorating the positive ones, a human-centred automation (HCA) approach to system design has been proposed as a way of optimizing the collaboration between the human and the machine. As a design approach, HCA stresses the importance of a cooperative human-machine relationship, where the operator is kept in the automation loop. However, how to introduce HCA within the fighter aircraft domain as well as its implications for the interface and automation design of support systems within the field has not been investigated.

    This thesis investigates the implications of introducing HCA into the fighter aircraft domain. Through literature surveys and empirical investigations, general and domain specific HCA guidelines have been identified. These advocate, for example, that an indication of the reliability of the information and the recommendations provided by the different aircraft support systems must be given as well as that support for appropriate updates of the pilots’ individual and team awareness of the situation must be provided. A demonstrator, mirroring some of the identified guidelines, has been implemented and used to evaluate the guidelines together with system developers within the domain. The evaluation indicated that system developers of modern fighter aircraft implicitly incorporate many of the identified HCA guidelines when designing. However, the evaluation further revealed that to explicitly incorporate these guidelines into the development approach, preferably through the development of a domain specific style guide, would aid the system developers design automated support systems that provide appropriate support for the pilots. The results presented in this thesis are expected to aid developers of modern fighter aircraft support systems by incorporating HCA into the traditional simulator-based design (SBD) approach. This approach is frequently used within the field and stresses early and frequent user-involvement when designing, in which complementary HCA evaluations could be performed to further improve the support systems implemented from an automation perspective. Furthermore, it is expected that the results presented in this thesis will contribute to the research regarding how to incorporate the human operator in the information fusion processes, which has been recognised as a research gap within the IF field. Thus, a further contribution of this thesis is the suggestion of how the HCA development approach could be of aid when improving the interaction between the operator and the automated fusion system.

  • 5.
    RICAO CANELHAS, DANIEL
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Scene Representation, Registration and ObjectDetection in a Truncated Signed Distance FunctionRepresentation of 3D Space2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a study of the signed distance function as a three-dimensional

    implicit surface representation and provides a detailed overview of its

    different properties. A method for generating such a representation using the

    depth-image output from a Kinect camera is reviewed in detail. In order to improve

    the quality of the implicit function that can be obtained, registration of

    multiple sensor views is proposed and formulated as a camera pose-estimation

    problem.

    To solve this problem, we first propose to minimize an objective function,

    based on the signed distance function itself. We then linearise this objective

    and reformulate the pose-estimation problem as a sequence of convex optimization

    problems. This allows us to combine multiple depth measurements

    into a single distance function and perform tracking using the resulting surface

    representation.

    Having these components well defined and implemented in a multi-threaded

    fashion, we tackle the problem of object detection. This is done by applying the

    same pose-estimation procedure to a 3D object template, at several locations,

    in an environment reconstructed using the aforementioned surface representation.

    We then present results for localization, mapping and object detection.

    Experiments on a well-known benchmark indicate that our method for localization

    performs very well, and is comparable both in terms of speed and

    error to similar algorithms that are widely used today. The quality of our surface

    reconstruction is close to the state of the art. Furthermore, we show an

    experimental set-up, in which the location of a known object is successfully

    determined within an environment, by means of registration.

    i

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