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The role of psychiatric diagnoses among youth offenders: An investigation of crime and later adverse outcomes
Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7231-4293
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a strong tradition in criminological research to uncover risk factors for crime in youth and, more recently, to examine risk factors for subsequent adverse outcomes among youth offenders. This knowledge serves not only for crime prevention but also to mitigate future harm resulting from youth crime. Psychiatric diagnoses are recognized as important risk factors for youth crime, yet questions persist regarding their extent and nature of association with crime and later adverse outcomes in youth offenders.

In this dissertation, the overarching aim was to expand the knowledge about the role of psychiatric diagnoses in the risk of crime in youth and later injuries, mortality, and reoffending among youth offenders. Study I examined the association between psychiatric diagnoses, including comorbidities, and risk of criminal conviction in youth. Study II examined the association between psychiatric diagnoses and risk of unintentional injuries and premature death among non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders. Lastly, study III examined the role of psychiatric diagnoses in the association between violent victimization and reoffending among youth offenders.

The overall findings of the present dissertation suggest that psychiatric diagnoses are important risk factors for crime in youth and later adverse outcomes, but their significance and magnitude vary depending on type of diagnosis, presence of comorbidities, type of crime committed, sex, crime history, and presence of other important risk factors such as violent victimization. This dissertation highlights the heterogeneity in risk patterns among youth offenders, which is highly important to consider in both risk assessments and prevention strategies to better target youth at risk of these outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Örebro: Örebro University , 2024. , p. 165
Series
Örebro Studies in Criminology ; 3
Keywords [en]
Crime, Psychiatric Diagnoses, Comorbidities, Youth Offenders, Violent Victimization, Family History, Reoffending, Unintentional Injuries, Premature Death
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-111803ISBN: 9789175295473 (print)ISBN: 9789175295480 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-111803DiVA, id: diva2:1839525
Public defence
2024-04-05, Örebro universitet, Långhuset, Hörsal L2, Fakultetsgatan 1, Örebro, 09:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-02-21 Created: 2024-02-21 Last updated: 2024-03-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in youth: A population-based study of comorbidities of diagnoses
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2023 (English)In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 88, article id 102114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Psychiatric diagnoses are important risk factors for criminal convictions, but few longitudinal studies have examined comorbidity patterns in relation to youth criminal convictions.

Aim: To explore associations between specific psychiatric diagnoses (substance use disorder (SUD), ADHD, depression, PTSD, intellectual disabilities (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)) and comorbidities of internalizing, externalizing, or neurodevelopmental diagnoses (NDD) in relation to risk of non-violent or violent criminal convictions in youth, including potential sex differences.

Methods: Data on 1,411,538 individuals born in Sweden (1985–1998) were obtained from national population-based registers. Exposure was psychiatric diagnoses and outcome was criminal convictions between ages 15 and 20.

Results: 17% of individuals had a psychiatric diagnosis, of whom 20% were convicted of a crime. All diagnoses, except ID and ASD, increased the risk of non-violent and violent crimes. Comorbidities of externalizing and internalizing diagnoses heightened the risk compared to single diagnoses. NDD increased the risk among SUD, depression, and PTSD, while NDD comorbid with another NDD decreased the risk for criminal convictions.

Conclusion: Of the three comorbidity categories, externalizing disorders heightened risk the most, followed by internalizing disorders. This study highlights specific risk patterns for criminal convictions related to comorbidities, and to crime type and sex.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Psychiatric diagnoses, Comorbidities of diagnoses, Criminal convictions in youth, Substance use disorders, Sex differences, Youth offenders
National Category
Law and Society Psychiatry
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-108354 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2023.102114 (DOI)001081514900001 ()2-s2.0-85171774297 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2021–02105 2018–01041
Available from: 2023-09-18 Created: 2023-09-18 Last updated: 2024-03-12Bibliographically approved
2. A population-based study of unintentional injury and premature death among non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A population-based study of unintentional injury and premature death among non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders
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2023 (English)In: Journal of criminal justice, ISSN 0047-2352, E-ISSN 1873-6203, Vol. 84, article id 102009Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Youth offenders have a high risk of being injured or dying prematurely. However, few studies have considered the role of imprisonment and potential childhood risk factors for these high rates.

Aim: To examine the risk of unintentional injury and premature death in non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders, and to examine the role of parental criminal convictions and psychiatric disorders and own childhood psychiatric disorders.

Methods: All individuals (N = 1,839,711) born in Sweden between 1978 and 1996 were identified using Swedish population-based registers. The exposure was criminal conviction between ages 15-20 years of age.

Results: Imprisoned youth offenders had the highest risk for unintentional injury (HR = 2.29 [2.19-2.40]) and premature death (HR = 10.76 [9.52-12.16]), followed by nonimprisoned youth offenders, compared to non -convicted youth. All childhood risk factors increased the risk for these outcomes among non-imprisoned youth offenders. Among imprisoned youth offenders, parental criminal convictions and parental psychiatric disorders increased the risk for unintentional injury, and parental psychiatric disorders and own childhood psychiatric disorders increased the risk for premature death.

Conclusions: Our study shows there are robust modifiable childhood risk factors for injury and mortality among youth offenders. However, the importance of them to assess risk may differ between non-imprisoned and imprisoned youth offenders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Youth offenders, Imprisonment, Unintentional injuries, Premature death, Psychiatric disorders, Family history, Risk factors
National Category
Psychiatry Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Criminology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-102913 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2022.102009 (DOI)000893157900001 ()2-s2.0-85143781463 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-01041Swedish Research Council, 2021–02105
Available from: 2023-01-05 Created: 2023-01-05 Last updated: 2024-03-12Bibliographically approved
3. A population-based study on victimization and risk for reoffending among youth offenders with and without psychiatric diagnoses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A population-based study on victimization and risk for reoffending among youth offenders with and without psychiatric diagnoses
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Law and Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-112273 (URN)
Available from: 2024-03-12 Created: 2024-03-12 Last updated: 2024-03-12Bibliographically approved

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