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  • 1.
    Abdirazak Mohamed, Warsame
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sultan, Ahmed
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Fallstudier i IDA ICE2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Case studies have been performed on a room, of which the U-values, the outer wall orientation and the ventilation system are adjusted, to study how such measures affect the energy usage of said room. The aim is to create a frame of reference that can be used to give quick answers to questions regarding the amount of energy that could be saved by applying the methods discussed in this thesis. During said studies, the U-value of a simulated room’s outer wall has been decreased from 0,15 to 0,11, and the U-value of the windows of the same room has been decreased from 1,2 to 0,9. The room has been moved so that the outer wall would face west, south, east and north respectively. Finally, the simulated room’s energy and heat balance have been simulated in two cases for a person load of 20 persons, of which the first case presents a room with a CAV (Constant Air Volume) ventilation system, and the second case presents a room with a VAV (Varied Air Volume) ventilation system. The following results are obtained from the simulations: Choosing a window with a U-value of 0.9 instead of 1.2 W/m2Kdecreases the room’s energy usage by 15 %. Choosing an outer wall with a U-value of 0.11 instead of 0.15W/m2K decreases the room’s energy usage by 9 %. Choosing a VAV ventilation system instead of a CAV ventilation system decreases the room’s energy usage by up to 16 %. Constructing the outer wall to face south decreases the room’s energy usage by 14-29 %.

  • 2.
    Abdishakour Hussein, Nassim
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hassen, Abubaker Jemal
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagring och transport av anläggningsmassor ur ett livscykelperspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's population is constantly increasing, and this means that people are moving more in larger cities, which is straining traffic, among other things. The Swedish Government's vision is that by 2045 the country will achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions. In view of this, the Swedish Transport Administration has developed climate requirements and guidelines on how to carry out and design the country's infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To achieve the long-term goal, climate neutrality 2045, the Swedish Transport Administration has set milestones. According to Trafikverket (2020) by 2020, 2025 and 2030 climate emissions will subsequently be reduced by 15%, 30% and 50%. The purpose of the report was to investigate how bulk materials can be stored to reduce the climate impact by using a life cycle analysis so that Veidekke Sverige AB and Implenia Sverige AB, which have been commissioned to build Förbifart Stockholm (Trafikplats Hjulsta Södra), will reach future climate requirements. The report is limited to the investigation of how much CO2 eq can be saved by storing/reusing bulk materials instead of transporting them away, to be used in the project's Climate Calculation. To carry out this study, it was important to identify the fuels used in the transport of bulk materials, the weight of bulk materials and how far the bulk materials were transported. In addition, the difference was mapped from an environmental perspective if the bulk materials were stored compared to if they are transported away. The results showed that from a climate perspective it pays to handle bulk materials by storing and that the trucks use HVO as fuel. Trucks powered by HVO emit 4.045 tons of CO2 eq. When transporting bulk materials to facilities, these trucks emit approximately 78.204 tons of CO2 eq. This shows that a climate saving of about 74 tons of CO2 eq is made when storing bulk materials, which is 18 times less than if the bulk materials are transported away. In addition, the study highlights that if the transport distance had been reduced by 25%, emissions would be reduced by 19.5 tons of CO2 eq. The conclusion of this study is that storage of bulk materials and HVO as a fuel is most beneficial from an environmental perspective when handling bulk masses because climate-impacting emissions are reduced by 610% compared to diesel. However,

  • 3.
    Abdullah, Aram
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Oktay, Samuel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Översyn av arbetstidsförläggning2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to keep up with the construction industry development it is important to be competitive. Many building contractors strive short construction times, which some- times can be difficult to achieve. In order to achieve short construction times you have to find clever solutions and a good production technic that ultimately gives a good re- sult. Shorter construction time contributes to lower costs for contractors.

    Something that is rare in today's construction industry is an extended working time this is something untried in Örebro. In the current situation a construction site opens about 07.00 and closes again for the day at 16.00, Monday to Friday. After 16.00 the construc- tion is stopped. This contributes to an inefficient use of the expenses found at a con- struction site. By extending the current working time with a few hours per day, it will hopefully contribute to a more efficiency use of the costs found at a construction site and also that the number of construction days decreases.

    In the current situation construction workers in PEAB se an extended working time negatively. According to PEAB this is because they do not understand their position in a business way within the company. PEAB argue that construction workers "permanent employment" is not a particularly secure employment. They argue that the only way to get a secure job is to PEAB in partnership with their employees can go get new jobs and deliver results together with their workers. The question then is how PEAB will be able to distinguish themselves from all other construction companies and gain a competitive advantage. According to Fredrik Ahl, Project Manager at PEAB, the solution is an ex- tended working time.

    This report aims to examine how a change in the current working time will affect the cost of a construction site. We also examined the reactions that occur among workers and officials when working hours are changing. 

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  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Anwar, Hama
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kvinnor i byggproduktion2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of work environment and development opportunities for women in the construction production sector might lead to loss of valuable skills. It has been noted that the construction production is imprinted by an older maleculture. The construction industry is generally a male dominated industry and the gender distribution is most uneven within the construction production where there is a shortage of women.Women who work in construction production often choose to leave their role for another within the industry after a couple of years. The ambition with this study is through surveys map how women experience and have experienced their work in construction production. The goal is to find factors and patterns that later on can be used by the construction industry in effort on the matter of attracting and retaining more women in construction production. This essay has partially been written with the construction company NCC Building Örebro/Värmland. Through the results of this essay, NCC wants to be able to compare and weigh up how far they as a company have come in the gender equality issues compared to the rest of the construction production sector. In order to find answers to the essays questions a literature study and data collection was done. Multiple surveys were sent out to both women and men with different roles in the construction production. The respondents had the opportunity to answer with different alternatives and in some of the questions write comments. The surveys were sent out to women employed at NCC Örebro/värmland and to women in the industry at different workplaces and locations around Sweden. A survey was also sent out to a group of men at NCC Örebro/Värmland in order to make a comparison on equivalent questions that were asked both to women and men. The results indicate that women in the construction production do not always have the same possibilities as men. When a comparison was carried out between women at NCC Örebro/Värmland and other women with experience in the construction industry it shows a small percentage difference in certain matters that NCC has a more prosperous workplace for women.Keywords:

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  • 5.
    Adayson, Christian
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ashor, Denkha
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analysering av förbättringsförslag till byggproduktion - En studie baserad på Lean2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, production in the construction industry has evolved into a costlier construction. It has become poorer productivity and increased construction defect attributed to scientific development. They can include notes that 40% of employees time at work goes to value-added work. Construction industry is inefficient in comparison to other manufacturing industries which has 65-75% in value-added work. It is also clear that the costs in the construction sector can be reduced by 30-35%. The authorities in the various reports conveyed its current troubles and that the renovation industry needs.

    The study was done with the help of interviews and a questionnaire analysis on several construction sites to investigate if the problem persists. We chose to focus on four different construction companies working on similar sized projects. By this is obtained a greater overview of the practical work steps.

    The aim is to offer suggestions for improvement using Lean to building production.

    The work delineated on studying waste, orderliness, and continuous improvement.

    The work began with a thorough literature search and through scientific articles. This was done in order to get an overall picture of Lean and also to analyze the problem in the construction industry.

    Lean is about making work more efficiently by managing resources properly. It aims to eliminate unnecessary waste and making continuous improvements. It is an approach that has been used in manufacturing and have been designed by Toyota Automotive Group. Given its present situation in the construction industry want to study, explore opportunities Lean can bring in terms of efficiency and reduction of costs of production.

    It can be ascertained is that workplaces are still gaps in the understanding of what waste is. They are not sufficiently informed and prioritize sometimes the wrong kind of waste. During the interviews it became apparent major gaps in knowledge on the issue. Wrong priorities result that it becomes a messy workplace, which in turn makes it less environmentally friendly and can thus cause injuries.

    Through that process and maintain order in the workplace, it provides the opportunity for a larger workspace that is more flexible, higher quality of performance, employee ergonomics are better and there is less risk of injury.

  • 6.
    Aghaie Azghandi, Mohammed Ali
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ahmad, Omar
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Byggföretagens hantering av fuktsäkerhetsprojektering – med fokus på projektörer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture damage usually occurs due to incorrect planning, design and execution throughout the construction process. These inaccuracies result in large cost of action that can be minimized or even eliminated if the moisture safety work is done properly. The design phase is an important stage and a properly implemented moisture safety design can be of great importance for the moisture safety work during the construction process. The planners’ role at this stage is to carry out a moisture safety work based on the requirements of the developer. The purpose of this exam is to find out the choice of method made by the planners’ in the implementation of moisture safety design and to review the need of competence development among the planners’ about moisture.    The two methods that have been used to achieve the purpose of this exam are interviews and literature studies. The target group in this exam is the construction companies in Sweden. The way of how the companies handle of moisture safety design is being reviewed in the design stage.  Of all involved actors in the design phase, the focus is on the planners'. Three out of five planners' are dissatisfied with their own moisture competence, which is in line with the opinion of the experts' of moisture about the planners' competence.   During the interviews, several experts' of moisture have pointed out the need for increased moisture competence among the planners'. The lack competence means that the planners' cannot consider or detect possible moisture risks during the moisture safety design. The method that is used by 80% of the planners' during moisture safety design is the ByggaF method. The planners' knowledge of ByggaF is still low according to the experts' of moisture and for this reason the planners' cannot apply entirely the ByggaF method. The tools that planners' need to have with them is knowledge and experience. In order to discover what is wrong, you need to have both the knowledge and experience about what is right.  Based on the response from both the building committee and the participants, a review of the documentation regarding the moisture safety work is not always requested by the building committee.  The conclusion is that projectors must acquire competence in both moisture and the ByggaF method.   

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  • 7.
    Albaldawi, Hisham
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Kobbah, Diana
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimensionering av Traverskranbana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Crane Loads acts on runways which varies with time and cannot be treated as static loads, this allows that the static estimation is not secure enough, therefore the crane runways should be designed in such terms that it can handle static as well as dynamic crane loads.

    The work was chosen after feasibility studies which were made on the internet to get basic knowledge on the subject. The information was sought in Swedish, English and German in order to find relevant and reliable sources which deal with overhead crane runway according to Eurocode. Thanks to advice from Björn Åsted from the Steel Construction Institute (SBI), a book in German was found. In order to compare the results, a Swedish software CraneGirder EC3 was used during the project. The report contains a calculation method for a rolled section girder, calculations were based on Eurocode equations and regulations which were the design basis for the project. The report refer to how a crane runway must be designed with a high utilization level, a number of controls were made to ensure that the beam and its details, such as rail and welding are surely designed to fatigue and deformation. The design was based on load calculations for the overhead crane. Traditional calculations showed how different crane loads can be combined in load groups to achieve the highest impact on the beam, calculations showed that HEB 280 and dimensioning dominated only by load group 1 and 5. With the help of calculation software the results were largely consistent with the program but with some differences. For the delimitation that was assumed in the project the fatigue seemed to have an effect especially on some small details like weld.

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  • 8.
    Alderholm, Daniel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Torstensson, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Funktionsbaserad undersökning av BENTLEYS POWERCIVIL FOR SWEDEN och Novapoint 19 DCM2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis was accomplished in cooperation with WSP Civils in Örebro in the

    spring of 2014. WSP Civil is in the consulting business of construction orientated

    in roads and terrain. Tools of engineering are crucial to be able to produce a

    good result. Therefore between the years of 2012 and 2013, WSP did an investigation

    regarding to which program would suit their demands. The projects task

    was to compare the existing tool Novapoint with a potential future program

    Bentleys PowerCivil for Sweden.

    The process was accomplished by creating a fictional road in both programs. Different

    functions were compared in a matrix table to be able to get a result in an

    illustrative way.

    The result in this rapport is in favor of PowerCivil for Sweden. It is mainly because

    of their templates but also because of their possibility to apply standards

    to the programs functions.

  • 9.
    Algotsson, Josef
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lundgren, Eric
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    ELVÄGAR - Energidistribueringssystem och energiutvinningssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and the EU has a lot of climate goals, to achieve these goals the use of fossil fuels must be reduced. One solution can be electric powered vehicles, when travelling long distances there is a problem to replenish fuel. The challenge is to meet the increased demand for energy - both in terms of production and distribution - in an environmentally sound manner. A literature study as well as an interview is carried out to investigate whether roads can be made smarter to promote a greener, electric vehicle traffic and the possibility of energy harvesting systems and energy distribution in the road area. The technology for energy harvesting systems and energy distribution is available, but it can always be further developed for cheaper manufacturing and more efficient products. Energy distribution systems studied are induction and conduction. The energy harvesting systems in this report are solar energy, piezoelectricity and wind power. Pilot projects in both areas exists and more projects are under development.

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  • 10.
    AL-Hindi, Rafah
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yousef, Yousef
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    BIM Byggnadsinformationsmodellering BIM-användning hos de olika aktörerna2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Clarus Arkitekter as design companies often receive orders from contractors and clients asking for a BIM model. In most cases, the BIM model is not fully used, but 3D drawings or 2D drawings are available. Then asks the question "Does the client / contractor have the correct understanding of what BIM is?" Different players have different guidelines and requirements that the projector should follow, which can be perceived as defective by the projector just to know what is demanded from each client. The question the thesis will answer is "How should the consultant do the best to offer the right service and what goals the consultant will do.

    The purpose of this master thesis is to find out how BIM usage could facilitate the work as well as the communication between the various actors who is involved in a construction project. To investigate how the level of competence lies with the Client, Entrepreneur and Projectors / Architects and answerthe question "what is behind the skill difference that exists?".

    The work began with literature studies for the collection and compilation of information. Questions will be set up to later use them during interviews with different people from different companies. The interviews will take place with individuals from consultancy, contractor and client company.

    The interest in using BIM is high in the industry, but unfortunately there is a great deal of skills shortage. Customers and entrepreneurs plan to start using BIM more, which will happen in the coming years, but now, they do not want to take new risks and prefer to use traditional methods that are more secure. To be able to apply BIM more in the construction industry, more knowledge is needed.

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  • 11.
    Al-Hussein, Heba
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    PLATSBASERAD HANTERING AV SÄKERHETSRISKER PÅ EN BYGGARBETSPLATS PÅ SKANSKA2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Should there be a risk working at construction sites?

    This is an issue that is daily discussed by many construction companies. The Construction industry is a major industry that reflects and provides the society with what it needs in order to function, such as residences, hospitals, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, ports etcetera. In order to provide the society all these different types of constructions, there is a risk for those who work at the construction site. Accidents and occupational diseases are about twice as common among construction workers compared to the average worker according to Swedish Work Environment Authority [1].

    Skanska is one of the leading construction companies in Sweden, and is working hard with occupational health and safety issues. There is a vision of zero construction site accidents. "Mitt Gröna Kvarter" is an infill and rebuild project that has focused extra on safety. This extra focus on safety was the reason why this particular project was chosen to study health and safety, and to see how this can be improved more. How the safety should be handled and solved varies depending on the activity to be done and the risk that occurs at that specific location. Skanska has with SBUF support published two reports on how a building drawing can be used to increase the safety on construction sites, by collecting information using a reference group working in different projects.

    This academic work shows a new way to categorize safety risks on construction sites. The report shows how safety risks can be documented on the building drawings and regulations. The categorization method and the risk documentation in drawing and regulations can lower the safety risks in the constructions sites.

    A construction time plan contains all the activities that must be done before a building is completed, and all the safety risks can be linked to the timetable even if this is an ineffective method. In this academic work, studying the project "Mitt Gröna Kvarter", approximately 50% of all the security risks can be linked to a specific location. Therefore both an activity and location specific account of risks is an optimal solution.

  • 12.
    Ali Ibrahim, Yusuf
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    KOMMUNIKATION OCH INFORMATIONSFLÖDE En studie av förbättringsmöjligheter vid Strängbetongs fabrik i Kungsör: COMMUNICATION AND FLOW OF INFORMATION A study of the improvement opportunities at Strängbetong plant in Kungsör2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective communication and unobstructed flow of information is essential for an organization's productivity and efficiency. Previous research on communication and information flow shows that the efficiency and productivity of an organization is correlated with how well the communication and information flow works in the organization. The aim of the work presented in this report is to map and analyze the communication and information flow in Strängbetongs plant in Kungsör. Among the methods used during this work are interviews with staff from different departments and open talks with the production staff in the factory. In addition to interviews and conversations with the staff, how gathered information is used for production monitoring and productivity improvement has also been analyzed.

    How communication and information flow can be improved are presented in the conclusion. The result shows how inadequate communication between different partners whose work hangs together give rise to reduced productivity, increased waiting times and leads to rework and discard.

  • 13.
    Ali, Musa
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Cakmak, Alexander
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    TEST AV NYA GIVARE FÖR FUKTMÄTNING I BETONG- Mätutrustning kring relativ fuktutveckling i betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The drying of concrete continues to be a topic that doesn’t seem to have any good solutions, in particular the wayinfollowitupduringproductionandonsite.Concreteproducers,today,investalot of effort with concrete produced with a low water-cement ratio. This enables themtokeepthedrying times down and at the same time produce concrete with goodstrength.Thedryingtimeofconcreteis of importance as to when materials can be applied to concretewhichrelatestorelativehumidity,RH, within the concrete. The problem lays in the producers nothavingenoughknowledgeofgoodequipmentforfollowingthe relative humidity in the concrete. This has made the producers strengthen theirknowledgeinthearea by conducting their own tests with different measurement equipment that followstheRH.Thisreport is another example of that. The purpose of the report was corrected and adapted due to the time pressure that arose during the work. From having actually been looking for fully wireless and embedded sensors, it was made to perform tests with sensors without the need for wirelessness. Potential equipment was evaluated, tested and compared to present methods and equipments for following the RH in the concrete. The equipment that was used for the practical test were sensors, HYT 271 and HYT 221, developed by IST AG who specialises in the area. The results were then supposed to be compared to a present, RBK-sensor and method, to ensure the sensors reliability. The practical tests were executed in Kungsör and the measurement equipment were limited to electronic devices.Becauseofits’easyhandlingself-compactingconcretewasused.Thetestswiththe HYT 221 were not documented in this report due to the timeframe for the report. The sensor stopped working after approximately an hour and was temporarily stated not working, though it was later confirmed as working. After three (3) days when the sensor was removed and remounted, it was fully functional again. ​Thus, comparisons between the HYT sensor and the RBK-sensor could therefore not be completed accordingly to the purpose of the report. The conclusion is that the sensor is fully useable but didn’t satisfy the sought purpose which initself made the comparable RBK-tests irrelevant. In addition, the sensor needed to be removed and reactivated. The reason for that is believed to be the strenuous environment in the fresh concrete. Based on that conclusion the equipment is stated useless for the execution and inconvenient to use, therefore the product doesn´t acclimate for such execution. 

  • 14.
    Aljibouri, Ahmed
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Saeed, Rozha
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Sociala krav och integration av nyanlända/utrikesfödda ingenjörer i byggsektorn2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the countries that contains multiculturalism. Several different ethnic groupsfrom different countries have settled in Sweden since the 1960s. Sweden has created severaldifferent organizations that have taken responsibility for being able to give the foreigner /immigrant the opportunity to enter the labor market in Sweden by validating their previousskills. Sweden's situation in the construction sector finds shortcomings in finding graduateengineers. This is one reason why Sweden has begun to accept foreign engineers with highskills and levels of education. Later, it has been realized that language in the constructionsector is important to be able to communicate, interact, respond to different situations anddifficulties and meet work requirements. According to the studies and the organizations, theydo not believe that engineers must use the Swedish language, but thus knowledge of theEnglish language should be available.During this investigation and study, they want to investigate and analyze various problemsthat may prevent newly arrived / foreign-born engineers from integrating into Sweden'sconstruction sector. From this, one wants to arrive at what language barriers one has toovercome in order to be able to get a permanent job. In addition to language and obstacles,they also want to investigate what opportunities there are for validation of their previouscompetencies that can fulfill qualifications and work roles in the construction sector inSweden. The survey has used interviews with NCC and Sweco organizations to make itsconclusions more credible. Both HR personnel specialists and trainees have participated in thesurvey by answering questions with themes that concern, validation, integration, workenvironment and communication.The survey study uses various literature books and other credible references to make ananalysis of the conclusions from the respondents' answers. The questionnaire survey aimed toinvestigate the current work situation for foreign engineers in Swedish society, the traineesdescribe their participation and experience in practice.One conclusion that the study comes to is that there are great opportunities to be able tovalidate previous competencies and get a permanent job as an engineer in the constructionsector. Arbetsförmedlingen works together with other construction organizations to establishand plan the recruitment of foreign engineers.

  • 15.
    Al-kutubi, Aje
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Yrlund, Josefin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    INFRASTRUKTURKULVERT-En jämförelse av ekonomisk lönsamhet mellan infrastrukturkulvert och traditionellt ledningssystem.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When Vallastaden, a neighborhood in Linköping was to be constructed in 2017 they had a requirement to be able to make use of as much of the land as possible for construction. It was necessary to come up with an alternative way to construct the water and sewage system, so the development of infrastructure culverts started. They developed a complete system which lays in a protected environment and manages close contact to buildings. This sparked the interest of several municipalities, but it is still difficult to decide which method is the most feasible financially.By performing a theoretical simulation like an LCC-analysis the decisions can be made based on the data used. In order to perform this theoretical simulation literature study has been done in order to collect the data which has been used in Excel.The LCC-analysis has been limited to the knowledge based on the existing prerequisites. Based on these prerequisites the calculations have focused on the excavation-, plant- and maintenance costs.The results show that the breakeven point lays around 40 years, a clear difference can be seen between the financial feasibility of both systems. Infrastructure culverts are theoretically cheaper when the simulation is done with an interval of (+/-) 20% of the total price. Studies have also shown that infrastructure culverts have lower maintenance costs, which are the majority of the costs when it comes to this simulation. Maintenance costs are a yearly recurring cost which result in the system costs rising based on their maintenance.The conclusion is that infrastructure culverts are financially profitable based on the research done in the study. Infrastructure culverts have lower maintenance costs but could potentially have higher construction costs based on the project size.

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  • 16.
    Allbrand, Gustav
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Merry Land, Bahnan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    EN UTVÄDERING AV FÖRSKOLORS INNEKLIMAT2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are several municipalities in need of added facilities for preschool education. The responsible for the decisions in the municipalities use different ways to handle this problem. Some municipalities choose to use temporary facilities, such as barracks, others decide to build new permanent buildings. The manufacturers of the temporary barracks claim that there are no differences between temporary and permanent buildings in terms of thermal comfort and air quality. This report aims to clarify whether there is a difference in thermal comfort and air quality between temporary preschool facilities compared with new permanent preschools buildings. The three methods used when collecting information to this report were literature review, measurements and quantitative questionnaire. The report was limited to examine only thermal comfort and air quality. Noise and light or other aspect that affects thermal comfort and air quality were not taken into account in this investigation. The measurement of indoor air quality was limited to measuring carbon dioxide content and relative humidity. The thermal comfort was limited to measure of air temperature, mean radiant temperature, relative humidity and air velocity during a dag in the spring. The questionnaires were limited to be distributed only to pedagogues who work in the preschools where the measurements had been carried out. The results of the surveys clearly show that the experience of the thermal comfort and the air quality are poorer at the temporary preschool compared to permanent preschool. In the PMV and PPD indexes, the results of the carbon measurement and the measurement of relative humidity were approximately the same between the preschools. The report may indicate that the experience of the thermal comfort and air quality are more satisfying in the permanent compared with the temporary preschool. To validate our results further studies of measurements and empirical material are needed.

  • 17.
    Almestrand, Lovisa
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Passivhus i Örebro län: Undersökning av marknaden för fastighetsägare2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to study the knowledge that property owners have of passive houses and if there is a market for this concept in Örebro County.

    Environmental and climate problems in the world are growing and a result of this is the constant circulating debate of passive houses. Low-energy houses are a necessary solution to reducing energy consumption, then the housing sector accounts for about 40 % of Sweden´s total energy use. Passive houses are a development of the low-energy house built without conventional heating systems and have a low energy use. Asplunds Bygg in Örebro is now building the very first passive houses in Örebro this spring 2009.

    The project began with contacting property owners to book interviews. The interviews were carried out over a four week period at the respective property owner's office. An independent in-depth were made parallel to the interviews by studying passivhus in literature, articles and on the Internet. The results of the interviews were compiled, compared and analyzed based on the purpose of the work.

    Property owners are receptive to the concept and believe that the energy issue is important, but that knowledge into passive houses of some is poor.  Finally found that from the results of the interviews it seems that there is a future market for passive houses in Örebro County. 

    Keywords: passive houses, low-energy houses, energy use, ventilation system, heat recovery, thick insulation.  

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    Passivhus i Örebro län
  • 18.
    Alp, Martin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dhiaa Muhsin, Mohammed
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Livscykelanalys - En jämförelse mellan trähus och betonghus2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When a raw material is being extracted to being used as a product and then demolished, environmental impact occurs in many different steps. With a Life-cycle-assessment (LCA), it is possible to calculate a product's environmental impact in all its phases. These are large amounts of greenhouse gases that are released into the environment and have a negative impact on the environment. The purpose of this report is to find out which of a wooden and concrete house is the most climate-smart in terms of emissions from extraction of materials until the house is completed.With the help of companies, we managed to obtain the quantity of the various houses in terms of material consumption for the foundation and walls of the houses. When the quantities have been obtained, the survey can go ahead and for this the tool Byggsektorns Miljöberäkningsverktyg is used where the quantities are calculated for the materials that are in demand.In order to achieve a result, certain parts of the life-cycle-assessment are delimited. Things that will be included in the report are the construction phase, i.e. A1-5 in the tool Byggsektorns Miljöberäkningsverktyg. This includes raw material extraction until the building is completed.The program calculations show that the concrete house accounts for a greater part of the climate impact than the wooden house. Concrete house's total climate impact (GWP), kg CO2 per m2 Atemp, is 48.753kg, while the wooden house's total climate impact is 14.836kg from the raw materials being extracted to the house being finished.The conclusion is that it is more climate smart and that there are more benefits to building a house in wood than building a house in concrete during the construction phase, even though they both have a concrete slab.

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  • 19.
    Amir, Halmat
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology. Örebro universitet.
    Björk, Chritian
    Örebro universitet.
    EGENKONTROLLER OCH FUKT, EN DEL I KVALITETSARBETET2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure a high quality of the final product it’s important that quality work is considered during the production. Quality work affects the company in a positive way by making our customers happy, improving and retaining our good reputation and leads to a good economy. NCC suspects that there’s insufficient quality work during production in the construction in-dustry across the country and based on that they want us to examine how they’re handling this. In this thesis we’ve done the interviews on five of NCC's ongoing projects in Örebro County in order to provide a picture about how the process of quality controls and moisture at the construction sites works. We’ll identify how employees work with their quality controls and moisture during the production, if there are any deficiencies in the work and in such case what’s causing it.

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  • 20.
    Ammoura, Ramah
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Hussein Saleh, Ali
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bränder i höga trähus- att förebygga och åtgärda bränder i trästommar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more high-rise buildings are being built of wood, largely because of thedevelopment of factory-manufactured industrial building elements and building systems inrecent years. Despite great positive impact on the environmental impact of the constructionindustry, the fact remains that wood burns very easily, and spreads quickly unless the rightmeasures are taken at the design stage.The purpose of this study is to investigate how high wooden houses are protected againstfire during the design phase. The new function-based requirements from BBR opened upnew opportunities to build high in wood. The idea is to highlight and inform about therelatively new way of building high-rise buildings with the fire factor in focus.Interviews and literature studies formed the basis for this study of the effective methodsused in the design of tall wooden houses.The design is drastically affected if the frame is built of wood material. BBR, the FireBrigade and insurance companies are some of the experts consulted in connection withthis study. Information from Fire Engineers and Designers allowed us to see how fire isprevented and what changes are being made unlike houses of other materials.The literature study and interviews show that fire risks for these types of buildings areovercome after the implementation of all BBR regulations and laws with analytical designfor fire protection in Br0 buildings. Sensitive designs must be addressed through the use ofappropriate sealants around the throughings, secure fire cells with various disks such asplasterboard, non-combustible materials such as mineral wool can be used as insulatingmaterials, mechanical ventilation systems that can reduce fire spread through ventilationopenings, and automatic with manual fire extinguishers that can meet the requirements.The conclusion is that fire can definitely be prevented in the design of tall wooden housesby using the solutions we present in connection with this study.

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  • 21.
    Andersson, Dennis
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Holck, Adrian
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Köldbryggeanalys - jämförelse av väggar med lätt-träreglar respektive solida träreglar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's focus on energy efficiency in new buildings puts high demands on the design and choice of materials to achieve low energy use. Thermal bridges influence the efficiency of the insulation in the building envelope. This report examines how the choice between traditional structural wood and light wood studs affects the heat flow through the thermal bridge that arises in that area. The program HEAT has been used for heat flow calculations. HEAT meets the standard for detailed heat flow calculations: EN ISO 10211:2007. Some common design solutions have been selected and modeled in HEAT, both homogeneous wood studs and light studs, respectively, in the same technical solution. The result is how much heat that flows out of the various construction solutions. The report shows a reduction of the thermal bridge in selection of lightweight studs. The difference is less when a conventional design solution for solid wood studs is compared to an alternative design solution that is common in the use of light-wood studs, than if the solid wood stud is just exchanged against a light wood stud.

     

  • 22.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jämförande studie avseende svenska byggregler och den europeiska standarden eurokoder: Inriktning husbyggnad och betongkonstruktion2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den Europeiska standarden är indelad i flertalet Eurokoder och dessa är de kommande beräkningsreglerna som år 2011 blir obligatoriska för alla bärande konstruktioner inom den Europeiska unionen. De kommer att ersätta tidigare nationella regler och det är framförallt Boverkets konstruktionsregler (BKR) med tillhörande handböcker som berörs av Eurokoderna.

    Flertalet faktorer påverkar när en övergång från svenska byggregler till Eurokoderna skall bli möjlig men det viktigaste har med dess tillgänglighet att göra. Det är inte längre en fråga om Eurokoderna skall börja tillämpas, utan istället när.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att det skall ge en allmän och överskådlig bild av hur de svenska byggreglerna skiljer sig från sin europiska motsvarighet, varvid likheter och olikheter skall lyftas fram.

    Jämförelsen har baserats på ett antal beräkningar som har utförts på ett framtaget referensobjekt, där endast de delar som berör beräkningar kring referensobjektet kommer att granskas och jämföras. För att få underlag till dessa beräkningar har litteraturstudium av respektive regler tillämpats. Detta material har allt eftersom sammanställts i denna rapport.

    Med utgångspunkt från det framtagna referensobjektet kan man till stor del fastlägga att skillnaden mellan svenska byggregler och europeisk standard inte är av större karaktär. En av de mest framgående skillnaderna är dock att den europeiska standarden är betydligt mer beskrivande om hur och vad som skall beräknas, vägen till resultatet, medan de svenska byggreglerna endast beskriver det slutgiltiga resultatet. Detta leder till att den europeiska standarden är betydligt lättare att följa och därav även lättare att tillämpa.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Visuell styrning & planering i byggproduktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is facing challenges when many new residences have to be built in a short time. There are high demands on the construction companies that they have an efficient and effective organization, both for construction planning and production.

    Lean philosophy is widely spread in the production industry and shows considerable efficiency gains. Tools from the philosophy have been applied in both construction planning and production. Two of these tools are visual control and visual planning. Both tools can contribute to reducing wastage in the forms lean philosophy puts it.

    The purpose of the study is to show how they use the tools in the production and how the work can be linked to the theoretical framework. The study also shows how the view of the tools differs between foremen and construction workers.

    The thesis consists of a literature study of visual management and planning taken from the lean philosophy. The tools have since been observed in Skanska's production in the Örebro district. This work has been supplemented with interviews of foremen and a questionnaire to the construction workers. Overall, it provides a good picture of both how the tools are used and how its use is perceived by the different professions.

    It turns out that the tools are very powerful and provide good opportunities to reduce the wastage rate in the production. The effects are already good but there is potential for greater profits with the tools.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Hannes
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lagring och hantering av personlig information2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes an analysis of the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) and the major changes this Regulation implies. The report describes a discussion about this regulation and how a company should reason when adapting GDPR in the development of a system that manages personal information. In addition, the adaptation made in Nethouse's case management system "Serviceportalen" and the parts developed for the extension of this system, "Medarbetarportalen", are described.

     

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Kollektivtrafik för landsbygder?2023In: Hållbar samhällsplanering för landsbygden: om service, infrastruktur och välfärd för goda livsvillkor / [ed] Stenbacka, Susanne; Hermelin, Brita, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2023, 1, p. 57-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Josefin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Lindmark, Ebba
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Är det möjligt att uppnå kraven för FEBY Guld oavsett en byggnads placering i Sverige?: Is it possible to meet the requirements for FEBY Gold regardless of location in Sweden?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the current political climate, several measures are implemented to prevent climate change both in Sweden and internationally. ‘Forum för Energieffektict Byggande’, FEBY, is an 6rganization that aims to contribute to the development and expansion of low-energy buildings. To this end, FEBY has created a certification scheme to help contractors develop buildings with lower energy consumption. To certify a building, the contractor must ensure that certain requirements are met, for example heat loss figures. Since the conception of the certification, only about 50 small houses have been certified. This raises the question of why so few small houses have been certified, and whether this is due to how the requirements are set.The purpose of this report is to investigate whether the heat loss figures that features in FEBY’s certification are reasonable in reference to the construction of small houses regardless of its location in Sweden. To examine this, this study features small house construction in Lund, Falun, and Boden. The overall building design is the same in all three locations, apart from the insulation thickness in the outer wall. The examined parameters for this study include window glass area, U-value of windows, air leakage, and thermal bridges varied in the calculations to ensure a more relevant and reliable result.This study is based on the calculations referred to in the document named FEBY18 which is based on the requirements for heat loss figures according to the FEBY Gold level.The report is limited to a single-floor house of 100 m2 of heated floor area. Factors such as sound, sun, moisture, annual heat factor, or heat balance for air-heated buildings are not considered. Nor is bearing capacity, resistance to fire, or the position of the windows, considered within the study.The result shows that negative U-values occur in several parameter variations in Boden and Falun. Negative U-values indicate that the outer wall must produce heat, which is not possible due to the construction of the wall. In several cases in Falun and Boden the U-values were so low that the insulation would need a thickness of more than one meter, while the insulation thickness in Lund never has to exceed 500 mm. Even during the most favorable conditions, the results still show the difficulty of achieving reasonable insulation thickness, as well as a positive U-value. This is especially true with regards to Boden, but in part also Falun.In conclusion, while it is possible to construct a small house that meet the requirements for the level FEBY Gold in the south of Sweden, it is increasingly challenging the further north you attempt to construct such a building. Even using thicker insulation, the requirements are difficult, if not impossible, to achieve in the north of Sweden. Under current conditions, the wall would need to generate its own heat to meat the heat loss figure demanded by the FEBY Gold standard.

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  • 27. Andersson, K.
    et al.
    Stridh, S.
    Örebro University, Department of Technology.
    Mät bara när mätdata kan förklaras2006In: VVS-forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no 1, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Aro, Maikel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Isak, Mattias
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Jämförelse av två stomsystem för byggnader- skillnaden mellan trä- och betongstommar ur klimatpåverkansynpunkt2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world is currently experiencing climate change and the largest factor to this are theincreases in greenhouse gas emissions caused by us humans. The construction industry inSweden contributes to about a fifth of the country’s total climate impact, hence it faces achallenging near future. There’s room for improvement within the construction industrythat can lead to reduced climate influence and today there are many courses of action thatcan further the progress towards an eco-friendlier industry.The life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool that’s used to measure the combined climateimpact of systems and products during their life cycle. Implementing one or multipleLCA’s on buildings allows the climate influence of the materials to be measured which inturn can be used to decrease the materials climate impact. The purpose of this thesis is toanalyze multiple studies which have used a life cycle analysis on buildings with concreteand wood frame systems in order to investigate which frame is more climate-smart, whythe frame that is less climate-smart is still in use and which material has the most impactA sorting process removed unuseful studies and left those that were the most fitting to thisthesis. The sorted studies were then compiled and conclusions and answers were made forthe questions at hand.The analyzed studies gave a clear indication that concrete frames had a larger emission ofCO2e. The reason for concrete frames still being in use even though the wood frame is aclimate friendlier option can be attributed to low demands for a lesser climate impact in theconstruction industry which in turn could be the cause for project managers not havingsufficient knowledge when it comes to frames and their climate impact. The most climatefriendly frame to build in is in some cases not the most optimal when it comes to thedesired construction’s function.In these cases, it is not optimal to build a construction with a wooden frame as thecharacter traits between concrete and wood are different, which results in the concreteframe being preferred. The total emissions from the two frames were compiled and thematerial that had the greatest impact on the climate from the concrete frame was the actualconcrete. However, it was not as clear for the wooden frame as it was different dependingon which stage of its life cycle that was considered. When the construction-phase wasconsidered the insulation had the largest climate impact but when the use-phase and thefinishing-phase was taken into account, the wood products had the largest emissions.

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  • 29.
    Arvidsson, Erik
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Energiförbrukning för putsade, odränerade träregelväggar i fuktigt respektive torrt tillstånd2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, moisture damages have been noticed in rendered, undrained stud walls. The design is built on the principle one-stage tightening which means that there is no air gap in the construction. The damages have occurred when water has permeated through the rendering in leaking connections and fittings for windows, doors, canopies, balconies, terraces and awnings. Behind the plaster carrier, which consists of either polystyrene or rigid mineral wool, plasterboard has often been used as a wind protection barrier. In many cases the wind protection barrier and the underlying wooden studs have been exposed to mould and in some cases even rot. It has been shown that damp in the structure is difficult to dry out.

    The aim of the thesis has been to examine how the energy consumption is affected when this type of construction is damp, partly because energy is required to dry up damp, partly because the insulation ability for a material decreases when it is affected by moisture.

    Previous research and relevant literature has been used in this thesis, to provide: A comprehensive picture of the problem, an explanation for the calculations used and an understanding of the conclusions drawn.

    The energy consumption has been calculated for 1 m2 wall area on two types of wall designs. The calculations have been performed in both dry and damp condition. To calculate the energy consumption in damp condition, three different types of calculation models have been used in three different ways. Since no measurements have been made, the calculations are to some extent based on assumed values.

    The amount of damp that have entered the structure has, according to the calculation models used, been shown to produce small differences in energy consumption compared to the dry structure. The main problem for these types of walls seems instead to be the growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, the microorganisms seem not to have affected the indoor environment in any significant manner.

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  • 30.
    Arvidsson, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Larsson, Tord
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Stridh, Göran
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Energiförluster i partiellt fuktiga enstegstätade ytterväggskonstruktioner: tema: fasader och fönster2009In: Bygg och Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, E-ISSN 2002-8350, no 8, p. 28-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Asaad Sharif Elemara, Hadil
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    GRUNDLÄGGNINGSMETODER-VAL AV GRUNDLÄGGNINGSMETOD FÖR SMÅHUS I ÖREBRO LÄN2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Foundations support entire houses and are required to be adequately well-built to carry a building’s

    mass for many years without facing problems due to environmental impacts such as moisture and

    frost. This work covers three basic types of foundations; concrete slab, crawl space and block

    foundation. The aim of this work is to investigate the construction methods of the foundations

    mentioned above, which are used within the construction of single-family homes in the city of

    Örebro, Sweden. Additionally, the basis of selection of these foundations by various construction

    companies in respect to risk of moisture-related problems is examined.

    Information about the foundations is collected from scholarly literature as well as qualitative

    interviews with seven construction companies’ experts. Ultimately, this study found that concrete

    slab with underlying insulation is more commonly used within the construction of single-family

    homes in Örebro than the other alternatives. Operators find that this foundation has many

    advantages in comparison with the other foundation techniques.

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  • 32.
    Ayoub, M. W. Ben
    et al.
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France; Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.
    Aro, Rudolf
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Georgin, Éric
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Rochas, Jean François
    CETIAT, Villeurbanne, France.
    Sabouroux, Pierre
    Aix Marseille Univ, Marseille, France.
    Quantification of free and bound water in selected materials using dielectric and thermo-coulometric measurement methods2018In: Journal of physics communications, ISSN 2399-6528, Vol. 2, no 3, article id UNSP 035040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadband electromagnetic characterization offers useful tools for the quantitative estimation of water content in a insulating solid materials. However, the correlation between electromagnetic characteristics and the amount of water in solids needs to be characterized using precise direct measurement methods. In this study, a two-port coaxial transmission cell has been characterized for water content estimation based on a study with the thermo-coulometric water detection method. The latter allows us to determine the proportions of the different water bonding forms that can exist in the material. The purpose of this paper is to provide a dielectric relaxation behavior study of the kaolinite clay from 10 MHz to 1.5 GHz, which was preceded by an experimental analysis of alpha-D-lactose monohydrate and the calcium oxalate monohydrate, which have stable water content under various humidity conditions.

  • 33.
    Barbaranelli, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Bengtsson, Pär
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    KOLFIBERFÖRSTÄRKNING – En jämförelse mellan kolfiberförstärkning och traditionella förstärkningsmetoder2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A building part could need a reinforcement. It could be a system of joists that are soon going to be loaded with heavier loads when business is changing from residence to an office. The alternate solution to reinforce that kind of construction would be with steel beams and columns or increase the height of the floor with more concrete. What few constructors and contractors know are the solution with carbon fiber reinforcement could be a better alternative.

    The purpose of the thesis is to study if carbon fiber reinforcement could compete with traditional reinforcement methods. From a calculating and a work-related perspective the project will underline the pro and cons with all of the reinforcement methods. To demonstrate how carbon fiber increase the bending moment capacity have lab and calculation of a real bridge project been executed. In both cases have a carbon fiber solution been compared with traditional reinforcement methods.

    The result of the thesis shows that carbon fiber reinforcement could replace traditional methods in many cases. The pros with the carbon fiber reinforcement is the light weight and high tensile strength that makes it possible, on an efficient way, increase the bending moment capacity in a building part. The thesis lab result shows that a carbon fiber reinforcement does have the same percentage increase in strength as a flat steel reinforcement.

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  • 34.
    Barsom, Daniella
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Osama, Rand
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV DELMOMENT I PROCESSKARTLÄGGNING2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis involves a process mapping to the rebuilding of the gymnasium of Vivallaskolan that burned down at the end of October 2010. Analyses and observations in the activity flow are based on the process mapping. There it shows what subsection that has gone well and less well. Suggested solutions have been made to the problems that gone less well. These solutions show clearly how they can be improved and are based on the following methods: the PDCA-cycle (page 21), BIM (page 21) and Ishikawa diagrams (page 21).

    This process mapping and suggested solutions are based on observations at the construction site together with reading literature and electronic sources. During visits and conversations with the construction manager and carpenters it have been recognized that Lean, which is a method for efficiency of different activity flows, are already partially used in the production of this construction project. These suggested solutions have been made to improve and develop the production phase qualitatively.

    During the survey and analysis of the process mapping, those who are involved in this construction project can clearly see and follow these suggested solutions. These are made to avoid upcoming problems which have been described in this thesis. These solutions can be used to upcoming construction projects already at the designing and calculation phase.

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  • 35.
    Barton, Jakob
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Rödjemyr, Gustav
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En undersökning av prefabricerade och platsbyggda utfackningsväggar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    NCC – Nordic Construction Company – in Örebro has recently decided to use prefabricated

    infill-walls as a method of choice. This report aims to explore, compile and compare the

    method of prefabricating infill-walls with the method of building infill-walls on site. The

    comparison has been made through considering aspects such as work environment, time

    consummation, manufacturing and production costs.

    The report has been conducted upon request from NCC in order to provide an indication of

    which method of production that present the best alternative for future projects. Interviews

    and information from relevant and ongoing projects in the Örebro area constitutes the basis of

    this report. All references to costs and time are based upon actual time schemes and invoices

    collected from said projects. The work environment has been compared to the risk analysis

    made by responsible staff members on site, all in accordance with the Swedish Work

    Environment Authority’s (Arbetsmiljöverket) directives. According to this report the

    difference in financial terms between site build and infill-walls is not that big. By using

    prefabricated infill-walls the report shows that you can save a lot of time. The report has been

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  • 36.
    Baryauno, Samuel
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Koc, Markus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    VR under försäljningsskedet av nyproduktion - Med kunden i fokus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This examination is about how the customer looks at VR (Virtual Reality) as a field of use during a sales stage of newly produced apartments. The report deals with VR as a visual technology and future solutions. Today, customers reads both two-dimensional and three-dimensional drawings before a purchase of an apartment, which is what most brokerage companies have to offer at the moment. PresentationthroughVRenvironmentshasbeguntoenterthepicture,thequestionis whether it benefits the customer and whether it becomes an obvious solution in future presentations. Examination is done to see if the visualization tool gives a better picture of newly produced apartments and whether it prevents misunderstandings for the customer and if it shortens the sales time. To achieve the purpose, VR tests and question surveys were accomplished by customers. The participants have been divided into three different groups where each group has received different tasks. One group has read drawings, the other has entered a VR environment and the third has done both. Thereafter, the groups have been allowed to enter the apartment to be able to answer the question surveys. The tests and the surveys show that customers perceive VR as a better solution during presentation of the apartment in comparison with drawings. The result also shows that VR reduces the misunderstandings that make iteasierforthecustomertodecide,whichleadstoa shorter sales time.

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  • 37.
    Bdaoui, Martina
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Aro, Vartouhi
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Effektivare trafik inom smarta städer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart cities are about meeting people's needs and living environment, this can be accomplished by developing different parts of the city. Sweden attaches great importance to the roads, infrastructure and the environment in ordertoachievethestabletrafficsafety.This has led to Sweden being better than many other countries as they are far ahead of the development. The UN has nowsetglobalgoalsforsustainabledevelopmenttobeachievedin 2030. These goals will give the countries a sustainable development and a future. The aim ofthisstudyistodevelopideasforasustainableguidelinefortheurbanenvironment that will lead to less traffic and a better environment. The ideas that were developed were to be able to reduce traffic in the center and its environmental impact. Idea 1 meant that a bus, which should be self-driving in the future, with about ten places that pick up people from different areas and transport everyone to the same destination.Thebusesareorderedfroman app in the mobile. This is a vision to reduce the number of self-driving drivers in vehicle traffic and to reduce greenhousegasemissions.Idea2,ontheotherhand,isabouttheparking in the center. The idea is to move all parking spaces a bit out of town and then to take an environmentally friendly vehicle, which here is self-driving, with other passengers entering the center. This vision wants to achieve a traffic-free center. To seeiftheideaswerefeasible and possible according to the respondents, questionnaires aimed at the target group, which drive vehicles into Örebro center, were produced. An interview with the unit manager for urban and traffic planning at Örebro municipality is also taking place tofindoutitsviewson the smart city and what solutions are possible for example to be able to solvethesustainable travel by public transport. This compiles literature for the collection of data from the traffic within smart cities. This study has been delimited to urban and traffic planning, where traffic includes, among other things, vehicle and public transport in the urban environment and passenger cars that travel through the center of Örebro. Örebro is the city to which the study is limited. After compiling the questionnaires and the interview, the resultshowsthatthedifferentideas that have been developed have given differentresultswhenitcomestothedifferentmethods. As a whole, it will be difficult to set a more concrete result because alargeproportionofthe respondents of the questionnaires and the unit manager have had different views on the solutions developed, which means that a conclusion cannot be drawn from the aggregate results. Inordertoobtainamoreconcreteresultofthesolutionsthathavebeendeveloped,the error sources should betakenintoaccountandfollowedupbytheerrorsthathavebeenmade. This could then provide a more in-depth analysis for the result and if the work is developed and improved, this paper can benefit society, which wouldcontributetomoreefficienttraffic in smart cities.

  • 38.
    Bdaoui, Mikael
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Nafisa, Mustaf Cali
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    En jämförelse mellan madagaskar och sverigeLagar, regler och säkerhet2020Independent thesis Basic level (Higher Education Diploma (Fine Arts)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every country have different laws and rules regarding construction work. These laws and rules are a foundation of how the structure in a country is.There is many reasons why some countries have more laws and rules than others. By studying a country like Sweden and compare it with Madagascar will show distinct differences when it comes to laws and rules. This study will examine the differences that exist and analyze whether the laws and rules that differs are at an advantage or a disadvantage.The purpose of this study is to compare an industrialized- and a developing country regarding laws and rules. In this case Madagascar and Sweden.This study is based on interviews, literature, and a travel book from a trip to Madagascar. The reason why Madagascar was chosen is because Madagascar has significant difference between structure and security. The information regarding Madagascar is based on a travel book that was written from a journey in the respective country.Countries that have similar structures and laws like Sweden are not included in this study. Since there are many laws and rules in Sweden, there will be a limitation to what laws and rules that will be applied in this study.This study shows that laws and rules are a contributing aspect to a structured, sustainable, functional building and indicates that the construction process in Sweden takes more time than what it does in Madagascar. This study also proves that a community can work without many laws and rules, however the solidity will be compromised. The safety in workplace in each country differs, with Sweden having more laws and rules regarding works safety. By having more laws and rules regarding safety leads to fewer accidents to occur as well as preventing ill-health.

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  • 39.
    Beiruti, Michel
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    OPTIMERING VID VAL AV BJÄLKLAGSTYP2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Optimering vid val av bjälklagstyp
  • 40.
    Berger, Natalie
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eberhardsson, Linus
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    MÅNGFALD I PRODUKTIONEN2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is male-dominated and suffers from a lack of diversity. Studies have shown that macho culture and a rough jargon leads to people leaving the industry.NCC is one of the biggest actors on the swedish construction market and the purpose of this study was to research how NCC Building Örebro/Värmland works with questions regarding diversity and what results it has generated. Attitudes towards diversity among the employees and differences in diversity between the counties have also been researched as a part of this study.Data was collected through literature studies, interviews and a survey. The interviewees were chosen for their function in the company or their part in a specific project.A quantitative survey was performed to research the ethnic diversity in the division and to research the employees perception of the working environment and attitudes towards diversity and gender equality.The research shows that NCC are working actively with questions regarding diversity, gender equality and inclusion and that it most probably contributed to a better psychosocial work environment. However, it’s clear that macho culture and rough jargon still exists at the workplaces. The results of the research also indicates that a majority of the employees have a positive attitude towards diversity and gender equality and that they are willing to work with the issue.There are clear differences between the counties regarding diversity among the employees. The research shows that there is a larger proportion of women among the employees in the construction phase in Värmland and that it probably have contributed to positive cultural change and an improvement of the psychosocial work environment.

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  • 41.
    Berggården, Lizette
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Flexibilitet i bostäder2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Swedish society today is happening fast. With this comes that the surrounding enviroment of residental area is facing constant changes. The recidences change with the same speed as the social development. As a result floorplans of recidences have to be easy to change. To achieve easy transformable floorplans planners should pay attention to the possibility of transforming during the design stage.

    In this work flexible floorplans of residences have been studied. Flexible floorplans mean that changes can be made easily to the floorplan and at a low cost. The focus of this work have been to look at residential floorplans from two different periods. The first period is the time of the "million programme" (residential building programme during year 1965-1975 in Sweden) and the second period is the present time (year 2005-2015). The work describes why flexible floorplans are needed, which opportunities the flexibility gives, if flexibility is time-related or unchanged over time and if an open floorplan or closed floorplan affects the flexibility.

    Legislation regarding residential design has been studied to understand which rules have controlled the floorplannings during the different times. One essential difference between legislation and rules from the time periods is that in the first period, the law set the standard requirements and nowadays it sets functional requirements. The human way of life in the housing has been studied from the 1960´s until today to understand the requirements of housing development.

    The work is based on a qualitative method where facts mainly have been collected from published books that have been read critically. An analysis of floorplans from the "millione programme" and the present has been performed. The method has been successful due to having clear criteria set before the analysis to indicate if the floorplan had good flexibility or not.

    The analysis of the floorplans was made for each time period to examine if flexibility is time-related or unchanged over time. In the analysis open and closed floorplans were compared to see if the type of plan affects the flexibility. Closed floorplans represent the "million programme" period and open floorplans represent the present.

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  • 42.
    Berglund, Martin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ekonomisk jämförelse av prefabricerad betong och korslimmat trä-Totalkostnad av materialen i stommarna2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry in Sweden has a goal of achieving zero net emissions of greenhouse gases by2045. At present, larger constructions are mostly built with a concrete frame, which has a high carbondioxide emission during new production. This means that the environmental goals will not be achievedunless other alternative building materials are being used to a greater extent. The material that is the bestalternative to concrete in apartment buildings is cross laminated timber (CLT), due to its durabilitycompared to regular timber. The problem with CLT is that it has such a much more expensive productioncost, that concrete frames continue to be chosen in apartment buildings. If the construction industry is tohave any chance of meeting the requirements set for the year 2045 with zero net emissions of greenhousegases, the cost of CLT must therefore be reduced in order for its use to be accelerated. The purpose of thisstudy is to produce the exact total cost difference between a prefabricated concrete frame and a CLTframe, while at the same time the building area and structure of the frames are as similar as possible. Thegoal was to prove how far the CLT has financially, until it can compete with concrete in apartmentbuildings.To make the comparison, a reference building was developed out of concrete, which is laterredimensioned to CLT for a fair comparison. The dimensioning was done by summarizing all loads byhand. These loads were later used for every part in the frame, in the calculation program Calculatis to getthe dimensions required for the demands on durability. With a new dimensioned wooden frame, twomaterial lists were produced for the different frames and compared in the Bidcon calculation program toobtain a total cost difference. This study has focused on comparing the costs of frame materials for abuilding in CLTand one in prefabricated concrete. Non-load-bearing walls, roof construction and groundstructure do not belong in the frame, and will therefore not be in the comparison.The study gave a result that showed that it is about 42% more expensive to build with a CLT frame than aprefabricated concrete frame in a 7 storey apartment building. The floor is the more expensivecomponent, while for example other parts such as balconies and load-bearing walls still proved to becheaper. According to BBR, special noise and fire requirements must be met in apartment buildings. Toachieve these, some sound insulation needs to be added to the CLT elements that are apartment separatorsand fire plasterboards in the entire frame with CLT. This leads to the CLT frame generally having agreater thickness compared to the concrete frame and also a few extra costs to keep in mind, even whenthe load-bearing material is smaller in the CLT frame. This leads to the living space of the apartments inthe CLT building being slightly smaller than in the concrete building. The conclusion is that CLT is not aneconomical alternative to prefabricated concrete according to Bidcon's databases when this study wascarried out and is 42% more expensive due to the fact that the intermediate floor has such a high cost.

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  • 43.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Latifi, Egzon
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    OLYCKSLASTER I ETT PREFABRICERAT FLERBOSTADSHUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is based on a comparison between the two different procedures on accidental actions in the Swedish norm EKS 11 and SS-EN 1991-1-7. If a construction only has a stairwell as the only emergency exit it requires that accidental actions determines. These accidental actions are categorized mainly to known and unknown accidental actions. Known accidental actions are for example collision by a vehicle or a gas leak from a gas pipe in the building. Unknown accidental actions are those loads that cannot be completely determined. Instead an analyze how to decrease the damage by accidental actions are used. The main approach is to value members as key elements, in effect making them strong enough to withstand a prescribed hazard loading. An alternative if the construction does not have any gas pipes is to use the pressure of 34 kN/m2 to represent the static equivalent from a notional gas explosion. The values in the work are based from a project constructed by the Swedish company Structor. Previously difficulties have occurred while comprehending the Eurocode’s calculation procedures therefore the new Swedish norm EKS have clarified a lot about accidental actions. The calculation procedures results in two different answers between the Eurocode and the Swedish norm EKS. The aim with this dissertation is too clarify the differences between them and perceive the reasons behind it. To be able to have a wider understanding of the subject accidental actions a screening has occurred of the Eurocode, the Swedish norm EKS and literature. The Swedish company Structor has also shared a lot of knowledge on the subject. The dissertation has been limited to accidental actions on stairwells as the only emergency exit and a comparison between the Swedish norm EKS 11 and SS-EN1-7. The outcome of the two different calculations shows two different results of the known and unknown accidental actions. The equations for calculating accidental action in the different standards considerate different things which leads to different results. The conclusion is that there always are different conditions in every project. Therefor a risk assessment should be done before the construction begins to determine which standard is the most suitable for the project.

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  • 44.
    Bodin, Tomas
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Dimensionering av två olika typer av träbroar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport dimensioneras två olika träbroar efter Eurokoderna. En med underspänning och en utan. Syftet var att jämföra konstruktionstyperna. Hjälpmedel för att åstadkomma detta var beräkningsprogrammet Rstab och Mathcad. Resultatet visade att vibrationer spelar en stor roll vid dimensioneringen. Plattan utan underspänning behövde vara två och en halv gånger så hög som den med underspänning för att klara vibrationskraven. Vilket medförde att den fick en låg utnyttjandegrad rörande hållfasthet. För bron med underspänning blev både hållfastheten och vibrationerna i stort sett lika avgörande vid dimensionering.

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    Dim av träbro
  • 45.
    Carlsson, Carl-Oscar
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Forslund, Johan
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Beräkningsmodell som avser transport av massor - Jämförelse kostnader och utsläppspåverkan orsakad av lastbilstransporter av schaktmassor till och från ett entreprenadprojekt2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skanska has identified a problem that Örebro municipality having severe restrictions on landfills and what masses may be unloaded there. Since the construction rate has been high in Örebro for a long time, Skanska sees that many landfills around Örebro are getting full. In some cases when the nearest landfill is no longer able to receive excavation masses, the company is forced to transport the excavation masses unnecessary distances to other landfills. The purpose of this study is therefore to create a calculation model that compares the impact of different transport alternatives on both the environment and the economy.The calculation model is developed through literature studies and interviews. The calculation tool will be applied to two examples to illustrate emissions and costs.The calculation model is limited to calculating emissions and costs generated from transport of excavation masses between projects, landfills and quarries.Using the theoretical model developed, costs and emissions have been illustrated for the project Marieberg Törsjö 3:14. The two examples based on Marieberg Törsjö 3:14 differ in the classification of the masses. This means that rules regarding the handling of the masses, working methods and the different geographical locations for landfills and quarries differ between the different examples.A conclusion from this study is a working calculation model has been developed that illustrates emissions and costs associated with the transport of the masses. The calculation model can be used by companies to illustrate the environmental impact that transport between two different landfills or quarries generates, as well as the price difference generated by the different alternatives.

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  • 46.
    Cehlin, Jesper
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    FÖRBÄTTRINGSARBETE PÅ BYGGARBETSPLATSER2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wasting is a major problem on construction sites. A concept where the minimization of waste

    is central is called lean manufacturing. This essay aims to investigate how improvement work

    is used on construction sites. The current systems for improvement were analyzed and

    suggestions for improvement were given.

    Interviews were used to examine how improvement work on construction sites was used.

    Self-control and working preparations were used as quality systems on the construction sites.

    It turned out that they have no system for quality improvement. Because no system was used

    a system had to be developed from scratch.

    The PDCA-cycle is a method of improvement which forms the backbone of Lean. This

    method was the basis for the design of the improvement process. The company has

    procedures for the safety work that this improvement work adapted. The result was Quality

    Round which has a similar design as the company's safety and environmental rounds. The

    Quality round is used as health and environmental rounds once a week at the construction site

    where problem areas are identified and then specified in an FMEA-like template. The Quality

    round provides the opportunity to work with the entire PDCA-cycle on construction sites.

    To notice the problems and solving them is one thing, to ensure that the solutions are

    distributed and used is however more difficult. Standardization is a problem at construction

    sites because unlike in the industry business where the production is stationary the facilities

    are constantly moved depending on the projects location. Each project is unique and there is a

    constant exchange of staff and management. Working preparations used in the company

    could serve as method for standardization. The best method is selected and then described in

    detail with the amount of material, equipment, number of workers, etc. In order to add value

    so that even experienced staff will use these, they could also serve as checklists and

    calculation tools.

  • 47. Chaltiel, Stephanie
    et al.
    Bravo, Maite
    Goessens, Sebastien
    Latteur, Pierre
    Mansouri, Masoumeh
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Ahmad, Ismael
    Dry and Liquid clay mix drone spraying for Bioshotcrete2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Bioshotcrete” is a new technology being developed by a team of robotic experts, architects, engineers, and drones’ specialists, aiming at using drones in the construction industry to spray natural materials over a temporary light formwork until a self-standing shell is completed. This technique consists in projecting paste-like matter composed of clay mixes following precise and customized deposition sequences over a temporary formwork, incorporating computational techniques in the design and fabrication stages, therefore proposing a more sustainable version of shotcrete. In particular, this paper features experiments using drones for spraying wet and dry ranges of clay mixes over a reusable inflatable formwork with the purpose to build monolithic earthen shells. The featured case studies propose specific protocols to control different deposition sequences, describing the proper formulation of clay mixes, the design and production of customized spraying devices, and fitting options in the drone allowing to vary pressure and other drone spraying parameters. The development of Bioshotcrete using robotic fabrication strategies could help expand and transform existing construction methods and processes to be applied at large scale, therefore incorporating innovative digital fabrication protocols towards a more sustainable building construction realm.

  • 48.
    Claesson, C.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Camilla
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jarfelt, U.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ramnäs, Olle Jerker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A new method of laying district heating pipes2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Claesson, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Camilla
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Steady-state thermal problem of insulated pipes solved with the multipole method2005Report (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Clefjord Ljungberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Brunzell, Malin
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Analys av inköpsbeteende av underleverantörer2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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